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International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965.

 

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965.

 

Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX)

of 21 December 1965

 

entry into force 4 January 1969, in accordance with Article 19

 

 

The States Parties to this Convention,

 

Considering that the Charter of the United Nations is based on the principles of the dignity and equality inherent in all human beings, and that all Member States have pledged themselves to take joint and separate action, in co-operation with the Organization, for the achievement of one of the purposes of the United Nations which is to promote and encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,

Considering that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set out therein, without distinction of any kind, in particular as to race, colour or national origin,

 

Considering that all human beings are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law against any discrimination and against any incitement to discrimination,

 

Considering that the United Nations has condemned colonialism and all practices of segregation and discrimination associated therewith, in whatever form and wherever they exist, and that the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples of 14 December 1960 (General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV)) has affirmed and solemnly proclaimed the necessity of bringing them to a speedy and unconditional end,

 

Considering that the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 20 November 1963 (General Assembly resolution 1904 (XVIII)) solemnly affirms the necessity of speedily eliminating racial discrimination throughout the world in all its forms and manifestations and of securing understanding of and respect for the dignity of the human person,

 

Convinced that any doctrine of superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and that there is no justification for racial discrimination, in theory or in practice, anywhere,

 

Reaffirming that discrimination between human beings on the grounds of race, colour or ethnic origin is an obstacle to friendly and peaceful relations among nations and is capable of disturbing peace and security among peoples and the harmony of persons living side by side even within one and the same State,

 

Convinced that the existence of racial barriers is repugnant to the ideals of any human society,

 

Alarmed by manifestations of racial discrimination still in evidence in some areas of the world and by governmental policies based on racial superiority or hatred, such as policies of apartheid, segregation or separation,

 

Resolved to adopt all necessary measures for speedily eliminating racial discrimination in all its forms and manifestations, and to prevent and combat racist doctrines and practices in order to promote understanding between races and to build an international community free from all forms of racial segregation and racial discrimination,

 

Bearing in mind the Convention concerning Discrimination in respect of Employment and Occupation adopted by the International Labour Organisation in 1958, and the Convention against Discrimination in Education adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1960,

 

Desiring to implement the principles embodied in the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Al l Forms of Racial Discrimination and to secure the earliest adoption of practical measures to that end,

 

Have agreed as follows:

 

PART I

 

Article 1

 

1. In this Convention, the term “racial discrimination” shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.

 

2. This Convention shall not apply to distinctions, exclusions, restrictions or preferences made by a State Party to this Convention between citizens and non-citizens.

 

3. Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as affecting in any way the legal provisions of States Parties concerning nationality, citizenship or naturalization, provided that such provisions do not discriminate against any particular nationality.

 

4. Special measures taken for the sole purpose of securing adequate advancement of certain racial or ethnic groups or individuals requiring such protection as may be necessary in order to ensure such groups or individuals equal enjoyment or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms shall not be deemed racial discrimination, provided, however, that such measures do not, as a consequence, lead to the maintenance of separate rights for different racial groups and that they shall not be continued after the objectives for which they were taken have been achieved.

 

Article 2

 

1. States Parties condemn racial discrimination and undertake to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating racial discrimination in all its forms and promoting understanding among all races, and, to this end: (a) Each State Party undertakes to engage in no act or practice of racial discrimination against persons, groups of persons or institutions and to en sure that all public authorities and public institutions, national and local, shall act in conformity with this obligation;

(b) Each State Party undertakes not to sponsor, defend or support racial discrimination by any persons or organizations;

 

(c) Each State Party shall take effective measures to review governmental, national and local policies, and to amend, rescind or nullify any laws and regulations which have the effect of creating or perpetuating racial discrimination wherever it exists;

 

(d) Each State Party shall prohibit and bring to an end, by all appropriate means, including legislation as required by circumstances, racial discrimination by any persons, group or organization;

 

(e) Each State Party undertakes to encourage, where appropriate, integrationist multiracial organizations and movements and other means of eliminating barriers between races, and to discourage anything which tends to strengthen racial division.

 

 

2. States Parties shall, when the circumstances so warrant, take, in the social, economic, cultural and other fields, special and concrete measures to ensure the adequate development and protection of certain racial groups or individuals belonging to them, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the full and equal enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. These measures shall in no case en tail as a con sequence the maintenance of unequal or separate rights for different racial groups after the objectives for which they were taken have been achieved.

 

Article 3

 

States Parties particularly condemn racial segregation and apartheid and undertake to prevent, prohibit and eradicate all practices of this nature in territories under their jurisdiction.

 

Article 4

 

States Parties condemn all propaganda and all organizations which are based on ideas or theories of superiority of one race or group of persons of one colour or ethnic origin, or which attempt to justify or promote racial hatred and discrimination in any form, and undertake to adopt immediate and positive measures designed to eradicate all incitement to, or acts of, such discrimination and, to this end, with due regard to the principles embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rights expressly set forth in article 5 of this Convention, inter alia:

 

(a) Shall declare an offence punishable by law all dissemination of ideas based on racial superiority or hatred, incitement to racial discrimination, as well as all acts of violence or incitement to such acts against any race or group of persons of another colour or ethnic origin, and also the provision of any assistance to racist activities, including the financing thereof;

 

(b) Shall declare illegal and prohibit organizations, and also organized and all other propaganda activities, which promote and incite racial discrimination, and shall recognize participation in such organizations or activities as an offence punishable by law;

 

(c) Shall not permit public authorities or public institutions, national or local, to promote or incite racial discrimination.

 

Article 5

 

In compliance with the fundamental obligations laid down in article 2 of this Convention, States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the following rights:

 

(a) The right to equal treatment before the tribunals and all other organs administering justice;

 

(b) The right to security of person and protection by the State against violence or bodily harm, whether inflicted by government officials or by any individual group or institution;

 

(c) Political rights, in particular the right to participate in elections-to vote and to stand for election-on the basis of universal and equal suffrage, to take part in the Government as well as in the conduct of public affairs at any level and to have equal access to public service;

 

(d) Other civil rights, in particular:

 

(i) The right to freedom of movement and residence within the border of the State;

 

(ii) The right to leave any country, including one’s own, and to return to one’s country;

 

(iii) The right to nationality;

 

(iv) The right to marriage and choice of spouse;

 

(v) The right to own property alone as well as in association with others;

 

(vi) The right to inherit;

 

(vii) The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion;

 

(viii) The right to freedom of opinion and expression;

 

(ix) The right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association;

 

(e) Economic, social and cultural rights, in particular:

 

(i) The rights to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work, to protection against unemployment, to equal pay for equal work, to just and favourable remuneration;

 

(ii) The right to form and join trade unions;

 

(iii) The right to housing;

 

(iv) The right to public health, medical care, social security and social services;

 

(v) The right to education and training;

 

(vi) The right to equal participation in cultural activities;

 

(f) The right of access to any place or service intended for use by the general public, such as transport hotels, restaurants, cafes, theatres and parks.

 

Article 6

 

States Parties shall assure to everyone within their jurisdiction effective protection and remedies, through the competent national tribunals and other State institutions, against any acts of racial discrimination which violate his human rights and fundamental freedoms contrary to this Convention, as well as the right to seek from such tribunals just and adequate reparation or satisfaction for any damage suffered as a result of such discrimination.

 

Article 7

 

States Parties undertake to adopt immediate and effective measures, particularly in the fields of teaching, education, culture and information, with a view to combating prejudices which lead to racial discrimination and to promoting understanding, tolerance and friendship among nations and racial or ethnical groups, as well as to propagating the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and this Convention.

 

PART II

 

Article 8

 

1. There shall be established a Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) consisting of eighteen experts of high moral standing and acknowledged impartiality elected by States Parties from among their nationals, who shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution and to the representation of the different forms of civilization as well as of the principal legal systems.

2. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by the States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

 

3. The initial election shall be held six months after the date of the entry into force of this Convention. At least three months before the date of each election the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties.

 

4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

 

5.

 

(a) The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the Committee;

 

(b) For the filling of casual vacancies, the State Party whose expert has ceased to function as a member of the Committee shall appoint another expert from among its nationals, subject to the approval of the Committee.

 

6. States Parties shall be responsible for the expenses of the members of the Committee while they are in performance of Committee duties.

Article 9

 

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for consideration by the Committee, a report on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures which they have adopted and which give effect to the provisions of this Convention: (a) within one year after the entry into force of the Convention for the State concerned; and

 

(b) thereafter every two years and whenever the Committee so requests. The Committee may request further information from the States Parties.

 

2. The Committee shall report annually, through the Secretary General, to the General Assembly of the United Nations on its activities and may make suggestions and general recommendations based on the examination of the reports and information received from the States Parties. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be reported to the General Assembly together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

 

Article 10

 

1. The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.

2. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.

 

3. The secretariat of the Committee shall be provided by the Secretary General of the United Nations.

 

4. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters.

 

Article 11

 

1. If a State Party considers that another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of this Convention, it may bring the matter to the attention of the Committee. The Committee shall then transmit the communication to the State Party concerned. Within three months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee written explanations or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been taken by that State.

2. If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both parties, either by bilateral negotiations or by any other procedure open to them, within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter again to the Committee by notifying the Committee and also the other State.

 

3. The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article after it has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the case, in conformity with the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged.

 

4. In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any other relevant information.

 

5. When any matter arising out of this article is being considered by the Committee, the States Parties concerned shall be entitled to send a representative to take part in the proceedings of the Committee, without voting rights, while the matter is under consideration.

 

Article 12

 

1. (a) After the Committee has obtained and collated all the information it deems necessary, the Chairman shall appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission) comprising five persons who may or may not be members of the Committee. The members of the Commission shall be appointed with the unanimous consent of the parties to the dispute, and its good offices shall be made available to the States concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matter on the basis of respect for this Convention;

(b) If the States parties to the dispute fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of the composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission not agreed upon by the States parties to the dispute shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the Committee from among its own members.

 

2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity. They shall not be nationals of the States parties to the dispute or of a State not Party to this Convention.

3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.

 

4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Commission.

 

5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention shall also service the Commission whenever a dispute among States Parties brings the Commission into being.

 

6. The States parties to the dispute shall share equally all the expenses of the members of the Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 

7. The Secretary-General shall be empowered to pay the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the States parties to the dispute in accordance with paragraph 6 of this article.

 

8. The information obtained and collated by the Committee shall be made available to the Commission, and the Commission may call upon the States concerned to supply any other relevant information.

 

Article 13

 

1. When the Commission has fully considered the matter, it shall prepare and submit to the Chairman of the Committee a report embodying its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issue between the parties and containing such recommendations as it may think proper for the amicable solution of the dispute.

2. The Chairman of the Committee shall communicate the report of the Commission to each of the States parties to the dispute. These States shall, within three months, inform the Chairman of the Committee whether or not they accept the recommendations contained in the report of the Commission.

 

3. After the period provided for in paragraph 2 of this article, the Chairman of the Committee shall communicate the report of the Commission and the declarations of the States Parties concerned to the other States Parties to this Convention.

 

Article 14

 

1. A State Party may at any time declare that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals or groups of individuals within its jurisdiction claiming to be victims of a violation by that State Party of any of the rights set forth in this Convention. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration.

2. Any State Party which makes a declaration as provided for in paragraph I of this article may establish or indicate a body within its national legal order which shall be competent to receive and consider petitions from individuals and groups of individuals within its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation of any of the rights set forth in this Convention and who have exhausted other available local remedies.

 

3. A declaration made in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article and the name of any body established or indicated in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article shall be deposited by the State Party concerned with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General, but such a withdrawal shall not affect communications pending before the Committee.

 

4. A register of petitions shall be kept by the body established or indicated in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, and certified copies of the register shall be filed annually through appropriate channels with the Secretary-General on the understanding that the contents shall not be publicly disclosed.

 

5. In the event of failure to obtain satisfaction from the body established or indicated in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the petitioner shall have the right to communicate the matter to the Committee within six months.

 

6.

 

(a) The Committee shall confidentially bring any communication referred to it to the attention of the State Party alleged to be violating any provision of this Convention, but the identity of the individual or groups of individuals concerned shall not be revealed without his or their express consent. The Committee shall not receive anonymous communications;

 

(b) Within three months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee written explanations or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been taken by that State.

 

7.

 

(a) The Committee shall consider communications in the light of all information made available to it by the State Party concerned and by the petitioner. The Committee shall not consider any communication from a petitioner unless it has ascertained that the petitioner has exhausted all available domestic remedies. However, this shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;

 

(b) The Committee shall forward its suggestions and recommendations, if any, to the State Party concerned and to the petitioner.

 

8. The Committee shall include in its annual report a summary of such communications and, where appropriate, a summary of the explanations and statements of the States Parties concerned and of its own suggestions and recommendations.

9. The Committee shall be competent to exercise the functions provided for in this article only when at least ten States Parties to this Convention are bound by declarations in accordance with paragraph I of this article.

 

Article 15

 

1 . Pending the achievement of the objectives of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, contained in General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, the provisions of this Convention shall in no way limit the right of petition granted to these peoples by other international instruments or by the United Nations and its specialized agencies.

2.

 

(a) The Committee established under article 8, paragraph 1, of this Convention shall receive copies of the petitions from, and submit expressions of opinion and recommendations on these petitions to, the bodies of the United Nations which deal with matters directly related to the principles and objectives of this Convention in their consideration of petitions from the inhabitants of Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories and all other territories to which General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) applies, relating to matters covered by this Convention which are before these bodies;

 

(b) The Committee shall receive from the competent bodies of the United Nations copies of the reports concerning the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures directly related to the principles and objectives of this Convention applied by the administering Powers within the Territories mentioned in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, and shall express opinions and make recommendations to these bodies.

 

3. The Committee shall include in its report to the General Assembly a summary of the petitions and reports it has received from United Nations bodies, and the expressions of opinion and recommendations of the Committee relating to the said petitions and reports.

4. The Committee shall request from the Secretary-General of the United Nations all information relevant to the objectives of this Convention and available to him regarding the Territories mentioned in paragraph 2 (a) of this article.

 

Article 16

 

The provisions of this Convention concerning the settlement of disputes or complaints shall be applied without prejudice to other procedures for settling disputes or complaints in the field of discrimination laid down in the constituent instruments of, or conventions adopted by, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and shall not prevent the States Parties from having recourse to other procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them.

 

PART III

 

Article 17

 

1. This Convention is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to this Convention.

2. This Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 

Article 18

 

1. This Convention shall be open to accession by any State referred to in article 17, paragraph 1, of the Convention. 2. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 

Article 19

 

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twenty-seventh instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

2. For each State ratifying this Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the twenty-seventh instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.

 

Article 20

 

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States which are or may become Parties to this Convention reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession. Any State which objects to the reservation shall, within a period of ninety days from the date of the said communication, notify the Secretary-General that it does not accept it.

2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of this Convention shall not be permitted, nor shall a reservation the effect of which would inhibit the operation of any of the bodies established by this Convention be allowed. A reservation shall be considered incompatible or inhibitive if at least two thirds of the States Parties to this Convention object to it.

 

3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this effect addressed to the Secretary-General. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received.

 

Article 21

 

A State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

 

Article 22

 

Any dispute between two or more States Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of this Convention, which is not settled by negotiation or by the procedures expressly provided for in this Convention, shall, at the request of any of the parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for decision, unless the disputants agree to another mode of settlement.

 

Article 23

 

1. A request for the revision of this Convention may be made at any time by any State Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken in respect of such a request.

 

Article 24

 

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in article 17, paragraph 1, of this Convention of the following particulars:

 

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under articles 17 and 18;

 

(b) The date of entry into force of this Convention under article 19;

 

(c) Communications and declarations received under articles 14, 20 and 23;

 

(d) Denunciations under article 21.

 

Article 25

 

1. This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of this Convention to all States belonging to any of the categories mentioned in article 17, paragraph 1, of the Convention.

 

 

 

ILO Recommendation on Indigenous and Tribal Populations.

ILO Recommendation on Indigenous and Tribal Populations.

 

The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,

Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its Fortieth Session on 5 June 1957, and

Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the protection and integration of indigenous and other tribal and semi-tribal populations in independent countries, which is the sixth item on the agenda of the session, and

Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation, supplementing the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957, and

Noting that the following standards have been framed with the co-operation of the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation, at appropriate levels and in their respective fields, and that it is proposed to seek their continuing co-operation in promoting and securing the application of these standards,

adopts this twenty-sixth day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven, the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Recommendation, 1957:

The Conference recommends that each Member should apply the following provisions:

I. Preliminary Provisions

1.

(1) This Recommendation applies to–

(a) members of tribal or semi-tribal populations in independent countries whose social and economic conditions are at a less advanced stage than the stage reached by the other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations;

(b) members of tribal or semi-tribal populations in independent countries which are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical region to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation and which, irrespective of their legal status, live more in conformity with the social, economic and cultural institutions of that time than with the institutions of the nation to which they belong.

(2) For the purposes of this Recommendation, the term semi-tribal includes groups and persons who, although they are in the process of losing their tribal characteristics, are not yet integrated into the national community.

(3) The indigenous and other tribal or semi-tribal populations mentioned in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this Paragraph are referred to hereinafter as the populations concerned.

II. Land

2. Legislative or administrative measures should be adopted for the regulation of the conditions, de facto or de jure, in which the populations concerned use the land.

3.

(1) The populations concerned should be assured of a land reserve adequate for the needs of shifting cultivation so long as no better system of cultivation can be introduced.

(2) Pending the attainment of the objectives of a settlement policy for semi-nomadic groups, zones should be established within which the livestock of such groups can graze without hindrance.

4. Members of the populations concerned should receive the same treatment as other members of the national population in relation to the ownership of underground wealth or to preference rights in the development of such wealth.

5.

(1) Save in exceptional circumstances defined by law the direct or indirect lease of lands owned by members of the populations concerned to persons or bodies not belonging to these populations should be restricted.

(2) In cases in which such lease is allowed, arrangements should be made to ensure that the owners will be paid equitable rents. Rents paid in respect of collectively owned land should be used, under appropriate regulations, for the benefit of the group which owns it.

6. The mortaging of land owned by members of the populations concerned to a person or body not belonging to these populations should be restricted.

7. Appropriate measures should be taken for the elimination of indebtedness among farmers belonging to the populations concerned. Co-operative systems of credit should be organised, and low-interest loans, technical aid and, where appropriate, subsidies, should be extended to these farmers to enable them to develop their lands.

8. Where appropriate, modern methods of co-operative production, supply and marketing should be adapted to the traditional forms of communal ownership and use of land and production implements among the populations concerned and to their traditional systems of community service and mutual aid.

III. Recruitment and Conditions of Employment

9. So long as the populations concerned are not in a position to enjoy the protection granted by law to workers in general, recruitment of workers belonging to these populations should be regulated by providing, in particular, for–

(a) licensing of private recruiting agents and supervision of their activities;

(b) safeguards against the disruptive influence of the recruitment of workers on their family and community life, including measures–

(i) prohibiting recruitment during specified periods and in specified areas: (ii) enabling workers to maintain contact with, and participate in important tribal activities of, their communities of origin; and

(iii) ensuring protection of the dependants of recruited workers;

(c) fixing the minimum age for recruitment and establishing special conditions for the recruitment of non-adult workers;

(d) establishing health criteria to be fulfilled by workers at the time of recruitment;

(e) establishing standards for the transport of recruited workers;

(f) ensuring that the worker–

(i) understands the conditions of his employment, as a result of explanation in his mother tongue;

(ii) freely and knowingly accepts the conditions of his employment.

10. So long as the populations concerned are not in a position to enjoy the protection granted by law to workers in general, the wages and the personal liberty of workers belonging to these populations should be protected, in particular, by providing that–

(a) wages shall normally be paid only in legal tender;

(b) the payment of any part of wages in the form of alcohol or other spirituous beverages or noxious drugs shall be prohibited;

(c) the payment of wages in taverns or stores, except in the case of workers employed therein, shall be prohibited;

(d) the maximum amounts and manner of repayment of advances on wages and the extent to which and conditions under which deductions from wages may be permitted shall be regulated;

(e) work stores or similar services operated in connection with the undertaking shall be supervised;

(f) the withholding or confiscation of effects and tools which workers commonly use, on the ground of debt or unfulfilled labour contract, without prior approval of the competent judicial or administrative authority shall be prohibited;

(g) interference with the personal liberty of workers on the ground of debt shall be prohibited.

11. The right to repatriation to the community of origin, at the expense of the recruiter or the employer, should be ensured in all cases where the worker–

(a) becomes incapacitated by sickness or accident during the journey to the place of employment or in the course of employment;

(b) is found on medical examination to be unfit for employment;

(c) is not engaged, after having been sent forward for engagement, for a reason for which he is not responsible;

(d) is found by the competent authority to have been recruited by misrepresentation or mistake.

12.

(1) Measures should be taken to facilitate the adaptation of workers belonging to the populations concerned to the concepts and methods of industrial relations in a modern society.

(2) Where necessary, standard contracts of employment should be drawn up in consultation with representatives of the workers and employers concerned. Such contracts should set out the respective rights and obligations of workers and employers, together with the conditions under which the contracts may be terminated. Adequate measures should be taken to ensure observance of these contracts.

13.

(1) Measures should be adopted, in conformity with the law, to promote the stabilisation of workers and their families in or near employment centres, where such stabilisation is in the interests of the workers and of the economy of the countries concerned.

(2) In applying such measures, special attention should be paid to the problems involved in the adjustment of workers belonging to the populations concerned and their families to the forms of life and work of their new social and economic environment.

14. The migration of workers belonging to the populations concerned should, when considered to be contrary to the interests of the workers and of their communities, be discouraged by measures designed to raise the standards of living in the areas which they traditionally occupy.

15.

(1) Governments should establish public employment services, stationary or mobile, in areas in which workers belonging to the populations concerned are recruited in large numbers.

(2) Such services should, in addition to assisting workers to find employment and assisting employers to find workers–

(a) determine the extent to which manpower shortages existing in other regions of the country could be met by manpower available in areas inhabited by the populations concerned without social or economic disturbance in these areas;

(b) advise workers and their employers on provisions concerning them contained in laws, regulations and contracts, relating to wages, housing, benefits for employment injuries, transportation and other conditions of employment;

(c) co-operate with the authorities responsible for the enforcement of laws or regulations ensuring the protection of the populations concerned and, where necessary, be entrusted with responsibility for the control of procedures connected with the recruitment and conditions of employment of workers belonging to these populations.

IV. Vocational Training

16. Programmes for the vocational training of the populations concerned should include provision for the training of members of these populations as instructors. Instructors should be conversant with such techniques, including where possible an understanding of anthropological and psychological factors, as would enable them to adapt their teaching to the particular conditions and needs of these populations.

17. the vocational training of members of the populations concerned should, as far as practicable, be carried out near the place where they live or in the place where they work.

18. During the early stages of integration this training should be given, as far as possible, in the vernacular language of the group concerned.

19. Programmes for the vocational training of the populations concerned should be co-ordinated with measures of assistance enabling independent workers to acquire the necessary materials and equipment and assisting wage earners in finding employment appropriate to their qualifications.

20. Programmes and methods of vocational training for the populations concerned should be co-ordinated with programmes and methods of fundamental education.

21. During the period of vocational training of members of the populations concerned, they should be given all possible assistance to enable them to take advantage of the facilities provided, including, where feasible, scholarships.

V. Handicrafts and Rural Industries

22. Programmes for the promotion of handicrafts and rural industries among the populations concerned should, in particular, aim at–

(a) improving techniques and methods of work as well as working conditions;

(b) developing all aspects of production and marketing, including credit facilities, protection against monopoly controls and against exploitation by middlemen, provision of raw materials at equitable prices, establishment of standards of craftsmanship, and protection of designs and of special aesthetic features of products; and

(c) encouraging the formation of co-operatives.

VI. Social Security and Measures of Assistance

23. The extension of social security schemes to workers belonging to the populations concerned should be preceded or accompanied, as conditions may require, by measures to improve their general social and economic conditions.

24. In the case of independent primary producers provision should be made for–

(a) instruction in modern methods of farming;

(b) supply of equipment, for example implements, stocks, seeds; and

(c) protection against the loss of livelihood resulting from natural hazards to crops or stock.

VII. Health

25. The populations concerned should be encouraged to organise in their communities local health boards or committees to look after the health of their members. The formation of these bodies should be accompanied by a suitable educational effort to ensure that full advantage is taken of them.

26.

(1) Special facilities should be provided for the training of members of the populations concerned as auxiliary health workers and professional medical and sanitary personnel, where these members are not in a position to acquire such training through the ordinary facilities of the country.

(2) Care should be taken to ensure that the provision of special facilities does not have the effect of depriving members of the populations concerned of the opportunity to obtain their training through the ordinary facilities.

27. The professional health personnel working among the populations concerned should have training in anthropological and psychological techniques which will enable them to adapt their work to the cultural characteristics of these populations.

VIII. Education

28. Scientific research should be organised and financed with a view to determining the most appropriate methods for the teaching of reading and writing to the children belonging to the populations concerned and for the utilisation of the mother tongue or the vernacular language as a vehicle of instruction.

29. Teachers working among the populations concerned should have training in anthropological and psychological techniques which will enable them to adapt their work to the cultural characteristics of these populations. These teachers should, as far as possible, be recruited from among such populations.

30. Pre-vocational instruction, with emphasis on the teaching of subjects relating to agriculture, handicrafts, rural industries and home economics, should be introduced in the programmes of primary education intended for the populations concerned.

31. Elementary health instruction should be included in the programmes of primary education intended for the populations concerned.

32. The primary education of the populations concerned should be supplemented, as far as possible, by campaigns of fundamental education. These campaigns should be designed to help children and adults to understand the problems of their environment and their rights and duties as citizens and individuals, thereby enabling them to participate more effectively in the economic and social progress of their community.

IX. Languages and Other Means of Communication

33. Where appropriate the integration of the populations concerned should be facilitated by–

(a) enriching the technical and juridical vocabulary of their vernacular languages and dialects;

(b) establishing alphabets for the writing of these languages and dialects;

(c) publishing in these languages and dialects readers adapted to the educational and cultural level of the populations concerned; and

(d) publishing bilingual dictionaries.

34. Methods of audio-visual communication should be employed as means of information among the populations concerned.

X. Tribal Groups in Frontier Zones

35.

(1) Where appropriate and practicable, intergovernmental action should be taken, by means of agreements between the governments concerned, to protect semi-nomadic tribal groups whose traditional territories lie across international boundaries.

(2) Such action should aim in particular at–

(a) ensuring that members of these groups who work in another country receive fair wages in accordance with the standards in operation in the region of employment;

(b) assisting these workers to improve their conditions of life without discrimination on account of their nationality or of their semi-nomadic character.

XI. Administration

36. Administrative arrangements should be made, either through government agencies specially created for the purpose or through appropriate co-ordination of the activities of other government agencies, for–

(a) ensuring enforcement of legislative and administrative provisions for the protection and integration of the populations concerned;

(b) ensuring effective possession of land and use of other natural resources by members of these populations;

(c) administering the property and income of these populations when necessary in their interests;

(d) providing free legal aid for the members of the populations concerned that may need legal aid but cannot afford it;

(e) establishing and maintaining educational and health services for the populations concerned;

(f) promoting research designed to facilitate understanding of the way of life of such populations and of the process of their integration into the national community;

(g) preventing the exploitation of workers belonging to the populations concerned on account of their unfamiliarity with the industrial environment to which they are introduced;

(h) where appropriate, supervising and co-ordinating, within the framework of the programmes of protection and integration, the activities, whether philanthropic or profit-making, carried out by individuals and corporate bodies, public or private, in regions inhabited by the populations concerned.

37.

(1) National agencies specifically responsible for the protection and integration of the populations concerned should be provided with regional centres, situated in areas where these populations are numerous.

(2) These agencies should be staffed by officials selected and trained for the special tasks they have to perform. As far as possible, these officials should be recruited from among the members of the populations concerned.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007.

 

 

 

Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 61/295 on 13 September 2007

 

The General Assembly,

Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and good faith in the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by States in accordance with the Charter,

 

Affirming that indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognizing the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves different, and to be respected as such,

 

Affirming also that all peoples contribute to the diversity and richness of civilizations and cultures, which constitute the common heritage of humankind,

 

Affirming further that all doctrines, policies and practices based on or advocating superiority of peoples or individuals on the basis of national origin or racial, religious, ethnic or cultural differences are racist, scientifically false, legally invalid, morally condemnable and socially unjust,

 

Reaffirming that indigenous peoples, in the exercise of their rights, should be free from discrimination of any kind,

 

Concerned that indigenous peoples have suffered from historic injustices as a result of, inter alia, their colonization and dispossession of their lands, territories and resources, thus preventing them from exercising, in particular, their right to development in accordance with their own needs and interests,

 

Recognizing the urgent need to respect and promote the inherent rights of indigenous peoples which derive from their political, economic and social structures and from their cultures, spiritual traditions, histories and philosophies, especially their rights to their lands, territories and resources,

 

Recognizing also the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States,

 

Welcoming the fact that indigenous peoples are organizing themselves for political, economic, social and cultural enhancement and in order to bring to an end all forms of discrimination and oppression wherever they occur,

 

Convinced that control by indigenous peoples over developments affecting them and their lands, territories and resources will enable them to maintain and strengthen their institutions, cultures and traditions, and to promote their development in accordance with their aspirations and needs,

 

Recognizing that respect for indigenous knowledge, cultures and traditional practices contributes to sustainable and equitable development and proper management of the environment,

 

Emphasizing the contribution of the demilitarization of the lands and territories of indigenous peoples to peace, economic and social progress and development, understanding and friendly relations among nations and peoples of the world,

 

Recognizing in particular the right of indigenous families and communities to retain shared responsibility for the upbringing, training, education and well-being of their children, consistent with the rights of the child,

 

Considering that the rights affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements between States and indigenous peoples are, in some situations, matters of international concern, interest, responsibility and character,

 

Considering also that treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements, and the relationship they represent, are the basis for a strengthened partnership between indigenous peoples and States,

 

Acknowledging that the Charter of the United Nations, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,2 as well as the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action,(3) affirm the fundamental importance of the right to self-determination of all peoples, by virtue of which they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development,

 

Bearing in mind that nothing in this Declaration may be used to deny any peoples their right to self-determination, exercised in conformity with international law,

 

Convinced that the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in this Declaration will enhance harmonious and cooperative relations between the State and indigenous peoples, based on principles of justice, democracy, respect for human rights, non-discrimination and good faith,

 

Encouraging States to comply with and effectively implement all their obligations as they apply to indigenous peoples under international instruments, in particular those related to human rights, in consultation and cooperation with the peoples concerned,

 

Emphasizing that the United Nations has an important and continuing role to play in promoting and protecting the rights of indigenous peoples,

 

Believing that this Declaration is a further important step forward for the recognition, promotion and protection of the rights and freedoms of indigenous peoples and in the development of relevant activities of the United Nations system in this field,

 

Recognizing and reaffirming that indigenous individuals are entitled without discrimination to all human rights recognized in international law, and that indigenous peoples possess collective rights which are indispensable for their existence, well-being and integral development as peoples,

 

Recognizing that the situation of indigenous peoples varies from region to region and from country to country and that the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical and cultural backgrounds should be taken into consideration,

 

Solemnly proclaims the following United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a standard of achievement to be pursued in a spirit of partnership and mutual respect:

 

Article 1

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a collective or as individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(4) and international human rights law.

 

Article 2

 

Indigenous peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity.

 

Article 3

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

 

Article 4

 

Indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing their autonomous functions.

 

Article 5

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State.

 

Article 6

 

Every indigenous individual has the right to a nationality.

 

Article 7

 

1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.

2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group.

 

Article 8

 

1. Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture.

2. States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and redress for:

(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities;

(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources;

(c) Any form of forced population transfer which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights;

(d) Any form of forced assimilation or integration;

(e) Any form of propaganda designed to promote or incite racial or ethnic discrimination directed against them.

 

Article 9

 

Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right to belong to an indigenous community or nation, in accordance with the traditions and customs of the community or nation concerned. No discrimination of any kind may arise from the exercise of such a right.

 

Article 10

 

Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return.

 

Article 11

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to practise and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. This includes the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and visual and performing arts and literature.

2. States shall provide redress through effective mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs.

 

Article 12

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practise, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the repatriation of their human remains.

2. States shall seek to enable the access and/or repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains in their possession through fair, transparent and effective mechanisms developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned.

 

Article 13

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for communities, places and persons.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that this right is protected and also to ensure that indigenous peoples can understand and be understood in political, legal and administrative proceedings, where necessary through the provision of interpretation or by other appropriate means.

 

Article 14

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning.

2. Indigenous individuals, particularly children, have the right to all levels and forms of education of the State without discrimination.

3. States shall, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, take effective measures, in order for indigenous individuals, particularly children, including those living outside their communities, to have access, when possible, to an education in their own culture and provided in their own language.

 

Article 15

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the dignity and diversity of their cultures, traditions, histories and aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected in education and public information.

2. States shall take effective measures, in consultation and cooperation with the indigenous peoples concerned, to combat prejudice and eliminate discrimination and to promote tolerance, understanding and good relations among indigenous peoples and all other segments of society.

 

Article 16

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish their own media in their own languages and to have access to all forms of non-indigenous media without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that State-owned media duly reflect indigenous cultural diversity. States, without prejudice to ensuring full freedom of expression, should encourage privately owned media to adequately reflect indigenous cultural diversity.

 

Article 17

 

1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable international and domestic labour law.

2. States shall in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples take specific measures to protect indigenous children from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development, taking into account their special vulnerability and the importance of education for their empowerment.

3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary.

 

Article 18

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to maintain and develop their own indigenous decision-making institutions.

 

Article 19

 

States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them.

 

Article 20

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities.

2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress.

 

Article 21

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation, health and social security.

2. States shall take effective measures and, where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities.

 

Article 22

 

1. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities in the implementation of this Declaration.

2. States shall take measures, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, to ensure that indigenous women and children enjoy the full protection and guarantees against all forms of violence and discrimination.

 

Article 23

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for exercising their right to development. In particular, indigenous peoples have the right to be actively involved in developing and determining health, housing and other economic and social programmes affecting them and, as far as possible, to administer such programmes through their own institutions.

 

Article 24

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to their traditional medicines and to maintain their health practices, including the conservation of their vital medicinal plants, animals and minerals. Indigenous individuals also have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services.

2. Indigenous individuals have an equal right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States shall take the necessary steps with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of this right.

 

Article 25

Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship with their traditionally owned or otherwise occupied and used lands, territories, waters and coastal seas and other resources and to uphold their responsibilities to future generations in this regard.

 

Article 26

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories and resources that they possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise acquired.

3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the indigenous peoples concerned.

 

Article 27

 

States shall establish and implement, in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned, a fair, independent, impartial, open and transparent process, giving due recognition to indigenous peoples’ laws, traditions, customs and land tenure systems, to recognize and adjudicate the rights of indigenous peoples pertaining to their lands, territories and resources, including those which were traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used. Indigenous peoples shall have the right to participate in this process.

 

Article 28

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to redress, by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible, just, fair and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used or damaged without their free, prior and informed consent.

2. Unless otherwise freely agreed upon by the peoples concerned, compensation shall take the form of lands, territories and resources equal in quality, size and legal status or of monetary compensation or other appropriate redress.

 

Article 29

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the conservation and protection of the environment and the productive capacity of their lands or territories and resources. States shall establish and implement assistance programmes for indigenous peoples for such conservation and protection, without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that no storage or disposal of hazardous materials shall take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples without their free, prior and informed consent.

3. States shall also take effective measures to ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring, maintaining and restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and implemented by the peoples affected by such materials, are duly implemented.

 

Article 30

 

1. Military activities shall not take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples, unless justified by a relevant public interest or otherwise freely agreed with or requested by the indigenous peoples concerned.

2. States shall undertake effective consultations with the indigenous peoples concerned, through appropriate procedures and in particular through their representative institutions, prior to using their lands or territories for military activities.

 

Article 31

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.

2. In conjunction with indigenous peoples, States shall take effective measures to recognize and protect the exercise of these rights.

 

Article 32

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for the development or use of their lands or territories and other resources.

2. States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free and informed consent prior to the approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources, particularly in connection with the development, utilization or exploitation of mineral, water or other resources.

3. States shall provide effective mechanisms for just and fair redress for any such activities, and appropriate measures shall be taken to mitigate adverse environmental, economic, social, cultural or spiritual impact.

 

Article 33

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine their own identity or membership in accordance with their customs and traditions. This does not impair the right of indigenous individuals to obtain citizenship of the States in which they live.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the structures and to select the membership of their institutions in accordance with their own procedures.

 

Article 34

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality, traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases where they exist, juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human rights standards.

 

Article 35

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the responsibilities of individuals to their communities.

 

Article 36

 

1. Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders.

2. States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the exercise and ensure the implementation of this right.

 

Article 37

 

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements concluded with States or their successors and to have States honour and respect such treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements.

2. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as diminishing or eliminating the rights of indigenous peoples contained in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements.

 

Article 38

 

States in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take the appropriate measures, including legislative measures, to achieve the ends of this Declaration.

 

Article 39

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to have access to financial and technical assistance from States and through international cooperation, for the enjoyment of the rights contained in this Declaration.

 

Article 40

 

Indigenous peoples have the right to access to and prompt decision through just and fair procedures for the resolution of conflicts and disputes with States or other parties, as well as to effective remedies for all infringements of their individual and collective rights. Such a decision shall give due consideration to the customs, traditions, rules and legal systems of the indigenous peoples concerned and international human rights.

 

Article 41

 

The organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations shall contribute to the full realization of the provisions of this Declaration through the mobilization, inter alia, of financial cooperation and technical assistance. Ways and means of ensuring participation of indigenous peoples on issues affecting them shall be established.

 

Article 42

 

The United Nations, its bodies, including the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and specialized agencies, including at the country level, and States shall promote respect for and full application of the provisions of this Declaration and follow up the effectiveness of this Declaration.

 

Article 43

 

The rights recognized herein constitute the minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world.

 

Article 44

 

All the rights and freedoms recognized herein are equally guaranteed to male and female indigenous individuals.

 

Article 45

 

Nothing in this Declaration may be construed as diminishing or extinguishing the rights indigenous peoples have now or may acquire in the future.

 

Article 46

 

1. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, people, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act contrary to the Charter of the United Nations or construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States.

2. In the exercise of the rights enunciated in the present Declaration, human rights and fundamental freedoms of all shall be respected. The exercise of the rights set forth in this Declaration shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law and in accordance with international human rights obligations. Any such limitations shall be non-discriminatory and strictly necessary solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the just and most compelling requirements of a democratic society.

3. The provisions set forth in this Declaration shall be interpreted in accordance with the principles of justice, democracy, respect for human rights, equality, non-discrimination, good governance and good faith.

জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন আইন, ২০০৯

জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন আইন, ২০০৯

 

( ২০০৯ সনের ৫৩ নং আইন )

[জুলাই ১৪, ২০০৯]

 

জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন প্রতিষ্ঠাকল্পে প্রণীত আইন

যেহেতু গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের সংবিধানে মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণ, উন্নয়ন এবং নিশ্চিতকরণ রাষ্ট্রের মূল লক্ষ্য; এবং

যেহেতু মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণ, উন্নয়ন এবং মানবাধিকার যথাযথভাবে নিশ্চিত করিবার উদ্দেশ্যে জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন নামে একটি কমিশন প্রতিষ্ঠা করা এবং এতদুদ্দেশ্যে বিধান প্রণয়ন করা সমীচীন ও প্রয়োজনীয়;

সেহেতু এতদ্বারা নিম্নরূপ আইন করা হইল :-

প্রথম অধ্যায়

প্রারম্ভিক

সংক্ষিপ্ত শিরোনাম ও প্রবর্তন     

১৷(১) এই আইন জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন আইন, ২০০৯ নামে অভিহিত হইবে৷

(২) ইহা ১ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০০৮ তারিখে কার্যকর হইয়াছে বলিয়া গণ্য হইবে।

সংজ্ঞা        

২৷ বিষয় বা প্রসংগের পরিপন্থী কোন কিছু না থাকিলে, এই আইনে –

(ক)    “কমিশন” অর্থ জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন;

(খ)    “চেয়ারম্যান” অর্থ কমিশনের চেয়ারম্যান এবং চেয়ারম্যান হিসাবে দায়িত্বপালনরত কোন ব্যক্তি;

(গ)    “জনসেবক” অর্থ দণ্ডবিধির section 21 এ public servant যে অর্থে ব্যবহৃত হইয়াছে সেই অর্থে জনসেবক;

(ঘ)    “দণ্ডবিধি” অর্থ Penal Code, 1860 (I of 1860);

(ঙ) “বিধি” অর্থ এই অধ্যাদেশের অধীন প্রণীত বিধি;

(চ) “মানবাধিকার” অর্থ গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের সংবিধান দ্বারা নিশ্চিত কোন ব্যক্তির জীবন (Life), অধিকার (Liberty), সমতা (Equality) ও মর্যাদা (Dignity) এবং গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ কর্তৃক অনুসমর্থিত এবং বাংলাদেশের প্রচলিত আদালত দ্বারা বলবৎযোগ্য বিভিন্ন আন্তর্জাতিক মানবাধিকার দলিলে ঘোষিত মানবাধিকার;

(ছ) “শৃঙ্খলা-বাহিনী” অর্থ গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের সংবিধানের ১৫২(১) অনুচ্ছেদে উল্লেখিত শৃঙ্খলা-বাহিনী;

(জ) “সদস্য” অর্থ কমিশনের কোন সদস্য এবং চেয়ারম্যানও ইহার অন্তর্ভুক্ত হইবেন;

(জ) “সাক্ষ্য আইন” অর্থ Evidence Act, 1872(I of 1872);

(ঞ) “সংবিধান” অর্থ গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের সংবিধান।

দ্বিতীয় অধ্যায়

মানবাধিকার কমিশন প্রতিষ্ঠা

জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন প্রতিষ্ঠা      

৩৷ (১) এই আইন বলবৎ হইবার পর, যতশীঘ্র সম্ভব, এই আইনের উদ্দেশ্য পূরণকল্পে এবং উহার বিধান অনুসারে জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন নামে একটি কমিশন প্রতিষ্ঠিত হইবে৷

(২) কমিশন একটি সংবিধিবদ্ধ স্বাধীন সংস্থা হইবে এবং উহার স্থায়ী ধারাবাহিকতা থাকিবে এবং এই আইনের বিধানাবলী সাপেক্ষে, ইহার স্থাবর ও অস্থাবর উভয় প্রকার সম্পত্তি অর্জন করিবার, অধিকারে রাখিবার এবং হস্তান্তর করিবার ক্ষমতা থাকিবে এবং ইহার নামে ইহা মামলা দায়ের করিতে পারিবে বা ইহার বিরুদ্ধেও মামলা দায়ের করা যাইবে৷

(৩) কমিশনের একটি সীলমোহর থাকিবে, যাহা কমিশনের সচিবের হেফাজতে থাকিবে৷

 

কমিশনের কার্যালয়    

৪। কমিশনের প্রধান কার্যালয় ঢাকায় হইবে এবং কমিশন প্রয়োজনে বিভাগ, জেলা ও উপজেলা পর্যায়ে ইহার কার্যালয় স্থাপন করিতে পারিবে।

কমিশন গঠন        

৫। (১) চেয়ারম্যান ও অনধিক ছয়জন সদস্য সমন্বয়ে কমিশন গঠিত হইবে।

(২) কমিশনের চেয়ারম্যান ও একজন সদস্য সার্বক্ষণিক হইবেন এবং অন্যান্য সদস্যগণ অবৈতনিক হইবেন।

(৩) কমিশনের সদস্যগণের মধ্যে কমপক্ষে একজন মহিলা এবং একজন নৃতাত্তিক (Ethnic) জনগোষ্ঠীর সদস্য হইতে হইবে।

(৪) চেয়ারম্যান কমিশনের প্রধান নির্বাহী হইবেন।

চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যগণের নিয়োগ, মেয়াদ, পদত্যাগ, ইত্যাদি    

৬। (১) রাষ্ট্রপতি, বাছাই কমিটির সুপারিশক্রমে, কমিশনের চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যগণকে নিয়োগ করিবেন :

তবে র্শত থাকে যে, কোন ব্যক্তি কমিশনের চেয়ারম্যান বা সদস্য পদে নিয়োগ লাভের বা অধিষ্ঠিত থাকিবার যোগ্য হইবেন না যদি তিনি ৩৫ (পঁয়ত্রিশ) বৎসর অপেক্ষা কম এবং ৭০ (সত্তর) বৎসর অপেক্ষা অধিক বয়স্ক হন।

(২) আইন বা বিচার কার্য, মানবাধিকার, শিক্ষা, সমাজসেবা বা মানবকল্যাণে উল্লেখযোগ্য অবদান রাখিয়াছেন এমন ব্যক্তিদের মধ্য হইতে চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যগণ, এই ধারার বিধান সাপেক্ষে, নিযুক্ত হইবেন।

(৩) কমিশনের চেয়ারম্যান এবং সদস্যগণ কার্যভার গ্রহণের তারিখ হইতে তিন বৎসর মেয়াদে স্বীয় পদে অধিষ্ঠিত থাকিবেনঃ

তবে শর্ত থাকে যে, একই ব্যক্তি চেয়ারম্যান বা সদস্য হিসাবে দুই মেয়াদের অধিক নিয়োগ লাভ করিবেন না।

(৪) উপ-ধারা (৩) এর অধীন নির্ধারিত মেয়াদ শেষ হইবার পূর্বে চেয়ারম্যান বা কোন সদস্য রাষ্ট্রপতির উদ্দেশ্যে স্বাক্ষরযুক্ত পত্রযোগে যে কোন সময় স্বীয় পদ ত্যাগ করিতে পারিবেন।

(৫) চেয়ারম্যানের পদ শূন্য হইলে কিংবা অনুপস্থিতি, অসুস্থতা বা অন্য কোন কারণে চেয়ারম্যান তাহার দায়িত্ব পালনে অসমর্থ হইলে, নবনিযুক্ত চেয়ারম্যান তাহার পদে যোগদান না করা পর্যন্ত কিংবা চেয়ারম্যান পুনরায় স্বীয় দায়িত্ব পালনে সমর্থ না হওয়া পর্যন্ত সার্বক্ষণিক সদস্য চেয়ারম্যান হিসাবে দায়িত্ব পালন করিবেন।

বাছাই কমিটি          

৭। (১) চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্য নিয়োগের লক্ষ্যে সুপারিশ প্রদানের জন্য নিম্নবর্ণিত সাত জন সদস্য সমন্বয়ে একটি বাছাই কমিটি গঠিত হইবে, যথাঃ-

(ক) জাতীয় সংসদের স্পীকার, যিনি ইহার সভাপতিও হইবেন;

(খ) আইন, বিচার ও সংসদ বিষয়ক মন্ত্রণালয়ের দায়িত্বে নিয়োজিত মন্ত্রী;

(গ) স্বরাষ্ট্র মন্ত্রণালয়ের দায়িত্বে নিয়োজিত মন্ত্রী;

(ঘ) চেয়ারম্যান, আইন কমিশন;

(ঙ) মন্ত্রি পরিষদ সচিব, মন্ত্রি পরিষদ বিভাগ;

(চ) জাতীয় সংসদের স্পীকার কর্তৃক মনোনীত দুইজন সংসদ-সদস্য, যাহাদের মধ্যে একজন সরকার দলীয় এবং অন্যজন বিরোধী দলীয় হইবেন।

(২) আইন, বিচার ও সংসদ বিষয়ক মন্ত্রণালয় বাছাই কমিটির কার্য-সম্পাদনে প্রয়োজনীয় সাচিবিক সহায়তা প্রদান করিবে।

(৩) অন্যুন ৪ (চার) জন সদস্যের উপস্থিতিতে বাছাই কমিটির কোরাম গঠিত হইবে।

(৪) বাছাই কমিটি, চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যগণ নিয়োগে সুপারিশ প্রদানের উদ্দেশ্যে সভায় উপস্থিত সদস্যগণের সংখ্যাগরিষ্ঠের সিদ্ধানত্দের ভিত্তিতে প্রতিটি শূন্য পদের বিপরীতে দুই জন ব্যক্তির নাম সুপারিশ করিবে এবং সিদ্ধান্তের সমতার ৰেত্রে সভায় সভাপতিত্বকারী ব্যক্তির নির্ণায়ক সিদ্ধান্ত প্রদানের অধিকার থাকিবে।

(৫) বাছাই কমিটি উহার সভার কার্যপদ্ধতি নির্ধারণ করিতে পারিবে।

চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যের অপসারণ        

৮। (১) সুপ্রীম কোর্টের একজন বিচারক যেরূপ কারণ ও পদ্ধতিতে অপসারিত হইতে পারেন, সেইরূপ কারণ ও পদ্ধতি ব্যতীত চেয়ারম্যান বা কোন সদস্যকে অপসারণ করা যাইবে না।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এ যাহা কিছুই থাকুক না কেন, রাষ্ট্রপতি চেয়ারম্যান বা অন্য কোন সদস্যকে তাহার পদ হইতে অপসারণ করিতে পারিবেন, যদি তিনি-

(ক) কোন উপযুক্ত আদালত কর্তৃক দেউলিয়া ঘোষিত হন; বা

(খ) চেয়ারম্যান ও সার্বক্ষণিক সদস্যের ক্ষেত্রে পারিশ্রমিকের বিনিময়ে স্বীয় দায়িত্ব বহির্ভুত অন্য কোন পদে নিয়োজিত হন; বা

(গ) কোন উপযুক্ত আদালত কর্তৃক অপ্রকৃতস্থ ঘোষিত হন; বা

(ঘ) নৈতিক স্খলনজনিত কোন অপরাধে দোষী সাব্যস্ত হন।

সদস্যপদে শূন্যতার কারণে কার্য বা কার্যধারা অবৈধ না হওয়া            

৯। শুধুমাত্র কোন সদস্যপদে শূন্যতা বা কমিশন গঠনে ত্রুটি থাকিবার কারণে কমিশনের কোন কার্য বা কার্যধারা অবৈধ হইবে না বা তৎসম্পর্কে কোন প্রশ্নও উত্থাপন করা যাইবে না৷

সদস্যগণের বেতন, ভাতা, ইত্যাদি  

১০। (১) চেয়ারম্যান সুপ্রীম কোর্টের আপীল বিভাগের একজন বিচারকের বেতন, ভাতা ও অন্যান্য সুবিধাদি পাইবার অধিকারী হইবেন।

(২) সার্বক্ষণিক সদস্য সুপ্রীম কোর্টের হাইকোর্ট বিভাগের একজন বিচারকের বেতন, ভাতা ও অন্যান্য সুবিধাদি পাইবার অধিকারী হইবেন।

(৩) অবৈতনিক সদস্যগণ কমিশনের সভায় যোগদানসহ অন্যান্য দায়িত্ব সম্পাদনের জন্য কমিশন কর্তৃক নির্ধারিত হারে সম্মানী ও ভাতা পাইবেন।

কমিশনের সভা         

১১। (১) এই আইনের বিধানাবলী সাপেক্ষে, কমিশন উহার সভার কার্যপদ্ধতি নির্ধারণ করিতে পারিবে।

(২) চেয়ারম্যান কমিশনের সকল সভায় সভাপতিত্ব করিবেন এবং তাহার অনুপস্থিতিতে সার্বক্ষণিক সদস্য সভায় সভাপতিত্ব করিবেন।

(৩) চেয়ারম্যান এবং অন্যূন ৩ (তিন) জন সদস্যের উপস্থিতিতে কমিশনের সভার কোরাম গঠিত হইবে।

(৪) কমিশনের সভায় সিদ্ধান্ত গ্রহণে প্রত্যেক সদস্যের একটি ভোট থাকিবে এবং ভোটের সমতার ক্ষেত্রে সভায় সভাপতিত্বকারী ব্যক্তির দ্বিতীয় বা নির্ণায়ক ভোট প্রদানের অধিকার থাকিবে।

(৫) প্রতি দুইমাসে কমিশনের কমপক্ষে একটি সভা অনুষ্ঠিত হইবে।

তৃতীয় অধ্যায়

কমিশনের কার্যাবলী ও তদন্তের ক্ষমতা

কমিশনের কার্যাবলী      

১২। কমিশন নিম্নবর্ণিত সকল বা যেকোন কার্যাবলী সম্পাদন করিবে, যথা :-

(ক)    কোন ব্যক্তি, রাষ্ট্রীয় বা সরকারী সংস্থা বা প্রতিষ্ঠান বা সংগঠন কর্তৃক মানবাধিকার লংঘন বা লংঘনের প্ররোচনা সম্পর্কিত কোন অভিযোগ স্বতঃই বা ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত ব্যক্তি বা তাহার পক্ষে অন্য কোন ব্যক্তি কর্তৃক দাখিলকৃত আবেদনের ভিত্তিতে তদন্ত করা;

(খ)    কোন জনসেবক কর্তৃক মানবাধিকার লংঘন বা লংঘনের প্ররোচনা বা অনুরূপ লংঘন প্রতিরোধে অবহেলা করা সম্পর্কিত কোন অভিযোগ স্বতঃই বা ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত ব্যক্তি বা তাহার পক্ষে অন্য কোন ব্যক্তি কর্তৃক দাখিলকৃত আবেদনের ভিত্তিতে তদন্ত করা ;

(গ) জেল বা সংশোধনাগার, হেফাজত, চিকিৎসা বা ভিন্নরূপ কল্যাণের জন্য মানুষকে আটক রাখা হয় এমন কোন স্থানের বাসিন্দাদের বসবাসের অবস্থা পরিদর্শন করা এবং এইরূপ স্থান ও অবস্থার উন্নয়নের জন্য সরকারের নিকট প্রয়োজনীয় সুপারিশ প্রদান করা;

(ঘ)    মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণের জন্য সংবিধান বা আপাততঃ বলবৎ কোন আইনের অধীন স্বীকৃত ব্যবস্থাদি পর্যালোচনা করা এবং উহাদের কার্যকর বাস্তবায়নের জন্য সরকারের নিকট সুপারিশ করা ;

(ঙ)    মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণের পথে বাধা স্বরূপ সন্ত্রাসী কার্যক্রমসহ বিষয়গুলি পর্যালোচনা করা এবং যথাযথ প্রতিকারের জন্য সরকারের নিকট সুপারিশ করা;

(চ)    মানবাধিকার বিষয়ক চুক্তি এবং অন্যান্য আন্তর্জাতিক দলিলাদির উপর গবেষণা করা এবং উহাদের বাস্তবায়নের জন্য সরকারের নিকট সুপারিশ করা ;

(ছ)    আন্তর্জাতিক মানবাধিকার এর মানের সহিত কোন প্রস্তাবিত আইনের সাদৃশ্য পরীক্ষা করা এবং আন্তর্জাতিক মানবাধিকার দলিলের সহিত উহাদের সমন্বয় নিশ্চিত করিবার স্বার্থে যথাযথ কর্তৃপক্ষের নিকট প্রয়োজনীয় সংশোধন সুপারিশ করা;

(জ)    আন্তর্জাতিক মানবাধিকার দলিলের অনুসমর্থন বা উহাতে স্বাক্ষর প্রদানে সরকারকে পরামর্শ প্রদান এবং উহাদের বাস্তবায়ন নিশ্চিত করা;

(ঝ)    মানবাধিকার বিষয়ে গবেষণা করা এবং শিক্ষা ও পেশাগত প্রতিষ্ঠানে উহাদের বাস্তবায়নে ভূমিকা পালন করা;

(ঞ)    সমাজের বিভিন্ন শ্রেণীর লোকজনের মধ্যে মানবাধিকার শিক্ষার প্রচার এবং প্রকাশনা ও অন্যান্য উপায়ে মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণ সম্বন্ধে সচেতনতা বৃদ্ধির লক্ষ্যে কাজ করা;

(ট)    মানবাধিকার বিষয়ে বে-সরকারী সংস্থা বা প্রতিষ্ঠানের কার্যক্রমের প্রচেষ্টাকে উৎসাহ প্রদান এবং উক্তরূপ সংস্থা বা প্রতিষ্ঠানের কার্যক্রম সমন্বয় করা;

(ঠ)    মানবাধিকার লংঘন বা লংঘিত হইতে পারে এমন অভিযোগের উপর তদন্ত ও অনুসন্ধান করিয়া মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতার মাধ্যমে অভিযোগের নিষ্পত্তি করা;

(ড)    মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণ ও উন্নয়নের লক্ষ্যে প্রয়োজনীয় আইন ও প্রশাসনিক নির্দেশনা প্রণয়নের ব্যাপারে সরকারকে পরামর্শ ও সহযোগিতা প্রদান করা;

(ঢ)    দেশের প্রচলিত আইন ও প্রশাসনিক কর্মসূচীর মাধ্যমে গৃহীতব্য ব্যবস্থা যাহাতে আন্তর্জাতিক মানবাধিকার মানের ও নিয়মের হয় সেই লক্ষ্যে সরকারের নিকট সুপারিশ করা;

(ণ) মানবাধিকার প্রয়োগের লক্ষ্যে কর্মরত সংগঠন বা প্রতিষ্ঠান এবং সাধারণভাবে সুশীল সমাজকে পরামর্শ ও সহায়তা প্রদান করা;

(ত)    মানবাধিকার বিষয়ে গবেষণা, সেমিনার, সিম্পোজিয়াম, ওয়ার্কশপ এবং অনুরূপ অন্যবিধ ব্যবস্থার মাধ্যমে গণসচেতনতা বৃদ্ধি করা এবং গবেষণালব্ধ ফলাফল প্রকাশ ও প্রচার করা;

(থ) মানবাধিকার সংরক্ষণ বিষয়ে আইন প্রয়োগকারী সংস্থার সদস্যদের প্রশিক্ষণ প্রদান করা;

(দ) কমিশনে অভিযোগ দায়েরের জন্য সংৰুব্ধ ব্যক্তি বা সংৰুব্ধ ব্যক্তির পৰে অন্য কোন ব্যক্তিকে আইনী সহায়তা প্রদান করা; এবং

(ধ) মানবাধিকার উন্নয়নের লক্ষ্যে প্রয়োজনীয় বিবেচিত অন্য যেকোন কার্য করা।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এ যাহা কিছুই থাকুক না কেন, নিম্নবর্ণিত বিষয়গুলি কমিশনের কার্যাবলী বা দায়িত্বের অন্তর্ভুক্ত হইবে না, যথা :-

(ক)    আদালতে বিচারাধীন মামলার কোন বিষয়;

(খ)    ন্যায়পাল আইন, ১৯৮০ (১৯৮০ সনের ১৫ নং আইন) এর অধীন ন্যায়পাল কর্তৃক বিবেচ্য কোন বিষয়;

(গ)    প্রজাতন্ত্রের কর্মে নিযুক্ত সরকারী কর্মচারী এবং সংবিধিবদ্ধ সরকারী কর্তৃপক্ষের কর্মে নিযুক্ত কর্মচারীর চাকুরী সংক্রান্ত এমন কোন বিষয় যাহা Administrative Tribunals Act, 1980( VII of 1981) এর অধীন স্থাপিত ট্রাইব্যুনালে বিচারযোগ্য৷

সুপ্রীম কোর্ট হইতে রেফারেন্স    

১৩। সংবিধানের ১০২ অনুচ্ছেদের অধীন আবেদন হইতে উদ্ভূত কোন বিষয় তদন্ত ক্রমে প্রতিবেদন পেশ করিবার জন্য সুপ্রীম কোর্ট কমিশনের নিকট প্রেরণ করিতে পারিবে৷

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন প্রেরিত বিষয়ে কমিশন তদন্ত করিয়া রেফারেন্সে উল্লিখিত সময়সীমা, যদি থাকে, এর মধ্যে সুপ্রীম কোর্টে প্রতিবেদন প্রেরণ করিবে৷

মানবাধিকার লংঘন প্রকাশ পাওয়ার ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবস্থা        

১৪। কমিশন কর্তৃক পরিচালিত তদন্তে যদি মানবাধিকার লংঘনের ঘটনা প্রকাশ পায়, তাহা হইলে কমিশন বিষয়টি মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতার মাধ্যমে নিষ্পত্তির ব্যবস্থা করিতে পারিবে৷

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন ব্যবস্থিত মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতা সফল না হইলে-

(ক) মানবাধিকার লংঘনকারী ব্যক্তির বিরুদ্ধে মামলা বা অন্য কোন কার্যধারা দায়ের করিবার জন্য কমিশন যথাযথ কর্তৃপক্ষের নিকট সুপারিশ করিবে;

(খ)    মানবাধিকার লংঘন প্রতিরোধ বা প্রতিকারের উদ্দেশ্যে যথাযথ কর্তৃপক্ষ বা ব্যক্তির নিকট সুপারিশ করিবে৷

(৩)    মানবাধিকার লংঘন করিয়াছেন বা করিতে উদ্যত হইয়াছেন এমন সংশ্লিষ্ট অভিযুক্ত ব্যক্তিকে শুনানীর সুযোগ না দিয়া কমিশন এই ধারার অধীন কোন সুপারিশ করিবে না৷

(৪)    এই ধারার অধীন কমিশন প্রদত্ত সুপারিশের একটি কপি কমিশন অভিযোগকারীর নিকট প্রেরণ করিবে৷

(৫)    যে ব্যক্তি বা কর্তৃপক্ষের নিকট এই ধারার অধীন সুপারিশ প্রেরণ করা হয় উক্ত ব্যক্তি বা কর্তৃপক্ষকে কমিশন সুপারিশ অনুযায়ী গৃহীত ব্যবস্থা সম্পর্কে প্রতিবেদন প্রদানের জন্য আহবান করিতে পারিবে এবং যাচিত প্রতিবেদন দাখিল করা উক্তরূপ ব্যক্তি বা কর্তৃপক্ষের দায়িত্ব হইবে৷

(৬)    এই ধারার অধীন সুপারিশ প্রেরণ করা হইয়াছে এমন কোন ব্যক্তি বা কর্তৃপক্ষ যদি প্রার্থিত প্রতিবেদন প্রেরণ করিতে ব্যর্থ হন বা প্রেরিত প্রতিবেদনে কমিশনের সুপারিশ অনুযায়ী গৃহীত বা প্রস্তাবিত ব্যবস্থা কমিশনের মতে অপর্যাপ্ত হয়, তাহা হইলে কমিশন যথাযথ বিবেচনা করিলে ঘটনাটির পূর্ণ বিবরণ রাষ্ট্রপতির নিকট দাখিল করিবে এবং রাষ্ট্রপতি উক্ত প্রতিবেদনের কপি সংসদে উত্থাপনের ব্যবস্থা করিবেন৷

 

মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতাকারী নিয়োগ      

১৫। (১) কোন বিষয় এই আইনের অধীন মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতার জন্য প্রেরণ করা হইলে কমিশন এক বা একাধিক ব্যক্তিকে পক্ষগুলির মধ্যে মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতার জন্য নিয়োগ করিবে।

(২) মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতাকারীর নিয়োগের পদ্ধতি এবং ক্ষমতা বিধি দ্বারা নির্ধারিত হইবে৷

(৩)    কমিশন সংশ্লিষ্ট পক্ষগণকে মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতার জন্য মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতাকারীর সম্মুখে হাজির হইবার জন্য নির্দেশ দিতে পারিবে৷

(৪)    মধ্যস্থতা ও সমঝোতাকারীদের অধিবেশন উম্মুক্তভাবে বা গোপনীয়ভাবে অনুষ্ঠিত হইতে পারিবে৷

(৫) মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতা না হইলে বা কোন পক্ষ মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতায় আপত্তি করিলে, মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতাকারী বিষয়টি কমিশনকে অবহিত করিবেন৷

(৬)    যদি মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতার মাধ্যমে কোন বিষয় সমঝোতা করিতে সক্ষম হয়, তাহা হইলে মধ্যস্থতা বা সমঝোতাকারী মীমাংসার বিষয়টি কমিশনকে অবহিত করিবে৷

(৭) উপ-ধারা (৬) এর অধীন মীমাংসা কার্যকর করণার্থে কমিশন তৎকর্তৃক যথাযথ বিবেচিত জরিমানা প্রদানের নির্দেশসহ অন্যান্য নির্দেশ দিতে পারিবে৷

তদন্ত সম্পর্কিত ক্ষমতা        

১৬। এই আইনের অধীন অনুসন্ধান বা তদন্তের ক্ষেত্রে নিম্নোক্ত বিষয়ে কমিশনের দেওয়ানী কার্যবিধি, ১৯০৮ (১৯০৮ সালের ৫ নং আইন) এর অধীন একটি দেওয়ানী আদালতের অনুরূপ ক্ষমতা থাকিবে, যথা :-

(ক) সাক্ষীর সমন ও উপস্থিতি নিশ্চিতকরণ এবং সাক্ষীকে জিজ্ঞাসাবাদ করা;

(খ) কোন লিখিত বা মৌখিক সাক্ষ্য শপথের মাধ্যমে প্রদানের জন্য তলব করা;

(গ) বাংলাদেশে বসবাসকারী কোন ব্যক্তিকে কমিশনের কোন বৈঠকে উপস্থিত হইয়া সাক্ষ্য দেওয়া বা তাহার দখলে আছে এমন কোন দলিল উপস্থাপন করিবার জন্য তলব করা;

(ঘ) তদন্ত বা অনুসন্ধানে জনগণের অংশগ্রহণ অনুমোদন বা অননুমোদন করা।

অভিযোগের অনুসন্ধান      

১৭। (১) কমিশন, মানবাধিকার লংঘনের অভিযোগ অনুসন্ধানকালে তদ্কর্তৃক নির্ধারিত সময়ের মধ্যে সরকার বা তদ্‌ধীন কর্তৃপক্ষ বা সংস্থার নিকট হইতে প্রতিবেদন বা তথ্য চাহিতে পারিবে।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এ নির্ধারিত সময়ের মধ্যে প্রতিবেদন বা তথ্য প্রাপ্ত না হইলে কমিশন নিজ উদ্যোগে অনুসন্ধান শুরম্ন করিতে পারিবে।

(৩) উপ-ধারা (১) এ নির্ধারিত সময়ের মধ্যে তথ্য প্রাপ্তির পর কমিশন যদি এই মর্মে সন্তুষ্ট হয় যে,-

(ক) বিষয়টি অধিকতর অনুসন্ধানের প্রয়োজন নাই; বা

(খ) সংশ্লিষ্ট বিষয়ে সরকার বা ক্ষেত্রমত, কর্তৃপক্ষ যথাযথ ব্যবস্থা গ্রহণ করিয়াছে বা গ্রহণের উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করিয়াছে-

তাহা হইলে কমিশন এই বিষয়ে অনুসন্ধানের উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করিবে না।

শৃঙ্খলা বাহিনীর ক্ষেত্রে অনুসরণীয় পদ্ধতি    

১৮। (১) এই আইনের অন্যান্য বিধানে যাহা কিছুই থাকুক না কেন, শৃঙ্খলা বাহিনীর বা ইহার সদস্যের বিরুদ্ধে মানবাধিকার লংঘনের অভিযোগের ক্ষেত্রে কমিশন নিজ উদ্যোগে বা কোন দরখাস্তের ভিত্তিতে সরকারের নিকট হইতে প্রতিবেদন চাহিতে পারিবে।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন প্রতিবেদন চাওয়া হইলে সরকার সংশ্লিষ্ট বিষয়ে কমিশনের নিকট একটি প্রতিবেদন দাখিল করিবে।

(৩) উপ-ধারা (২) এর অধীন প্রতিবেদন প্রাপ্তির পর কমিশন,

(ক) সন্তুষ্ট হইলে, এই বিষয়ে আর কোন উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করিবে না;

(খ) প্রয়োজন মনে করিলে সংশ্লিষ্ট বিষয়ে করণীয় সম্পর্কে সরকারের নিকট সুপারিশ পেশ করিতে পারিবে।

(৪) উপ-ধারা (৩) এর অধীন কমিশনের নিকট হইতে কোন সুপারিশ প্রাপ্ত হইলে উক্তরূপ সুপারিশপ্রাপ্ত হইবার ছয় মাসের মধ্যে সরকার ইহার গৃহীত কার্যক্রম সম্পর্কে লিখিতভাবে কমিশনকে অবহিত করিবে।

(৫) উপ-ধারা (৪) এর অধীন প্রতিবেদন প্রাপ্তির পর কমিশন উক্ত প্রতিবেদনের অনুলিপি অভিযোগকারী বা ক্ষেত্রমত, তাহার প্রতিনিধির নিকট সরবরাহ করিবে।

তদন্ত পরবর্তী কার্যক্রম          

১৯। (১) এই আইনের অধীন ভিন্নরূপ বিধান থাকা সত্ত্বেও, কোন তদন্ত সমাপ্তির পর অভিযোগ সত্য প্রমাণিত হইলে, কমিশন-

(ক) সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যক্তির বিরুদ্ধে মামলা রুজু বা অন্য কোন আইনগত কার্যক্রম গ্রহণের জন্য সরকারের নিকট সুপরিশ করিতে পারিবে এবং একই সঙ্গে ঘটনার পরিপ্রেক্ষিতে কি ধরনের মামলা বা অন্যান্য আইনগত কার্যক্রম গ্রহণ করা যথাযথ হইবে তাহা সুপারিশের মধ্যে উল্লেখ করিবে;

(খ) সংবিধানের ১০২ অনুচ্ছেদের অধীন আদেশ বা নির্দেশযোগ্য হইলে, সুপ্রীম কোর্টের হাইকোর্ট বিভাগে সংক্ষুব্ধ ব্যক্তির পক্ষে আবেদন দাখিল করিবার ব্যবস্থা করিতে পারিবে বা কমিশন স্বয়ং উক্ত বিভাগে আবেদন দাখিল করিতে পারিবে।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন কোন বিষয়ে কমিশন ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত ব্যক্ত বা তাহার পরিবারকে উহার বিবেচনায় যথাযথ সাময়িক সাহায্য মঞ্জুর করিবার জন্য সরকার বা সংশ্লিষ্ট কর্তৃপক্ষকে সুপারিশ করিতে পারিবে।

(৩) কমিশন তদন্ত রিপোর্টের একটি কপি সংক্ষুব্ধ ব্যক্তি বা তাহার প্রতিনিধিকে সরবরাহ করিবে।

(৪) উপ-ধারা (১) ও (২) এর অধীন সুপারিশসহ তদন্ত রিপোর্টের একটি কপি কমিশন সরকার বা সংশ্লিষ্ট কর্তৃপক্ষের নিকট প্রেরণ করিবে এবং উক্ত সুপারিশের ভিত্তিতে গৃহীত বা প্রস্তাবিত ব্যবস্থা সম্পর্কে, রিপোর্ট প্রাপ্তির তিন মাসের মধ্যে, সরকার বা সংশ্লিষ্ট কর্তৃপক্ষ কমিশনকে অবহিত করিবে :

তবে শর্ত থাকে যে, যদি সরকার বা উক্ত কর্তৃপক্ষের কমিশনের সিদ্ধান্ত বা সুপারিশের সহিত মতপার্থক্য থাকে অথবা সরকার বা উক্ত কর্তৃপক্ষ কমিশনের সুপারিশ অনুসারে ব্যবস্থা গ্রহণে অসমর্থ হয় বা অস্বীকার করে,

তাহা হইলে উক্ত মতপার্থক্য, অসমর্থতা বা অস্বীকারের কারণ উল্লেখ করিয়া উপরি-উক্ত সময়সীমার মধ্যে কমিশনকে অবহিত করিবে।

(৫) কমিশন সংশ্লিষ্ট তদন্ত রিপোর্টের সারার্থ এবং উক্ত রিপোর্টের উপর কমিশনের সিদ্ধান্ত বা সুপারিশ তদকর্তৃক যথাযথ বিবেচিত পদ্ধতিতে প্রকাশ করিবে:

তবে শর্ত থাকে যে, কমিশন যদি এই মর্মে সন্তুষ্ট হয় যে, গুরুত্ব বিবেচনায় কোন তদন্ত রিপোর্টের সম্পূর্ণ অথবা অংশবিশেষ জনগণের জ্ঞাতার্থে প্রকাশ করা প্রয়োজন, তাহা হইলে কমিশন উক্ত রিপোর্ট সম্পূর্ণ বা, ক্ষেত্রমত, উহার অংশবিশেষ প্রকাশ করিবে :

আরও শর্ত থাকে যে, যদি কমিশন এই মর্মে সন্তুষ্ট হয় যে, কোন রিপোর্টের সারার্থ প্রকাশ করিবার প্রয়োজন নাই, সেই ক্ষেত্রে উক্ত রিপোর্টের কোন কিছুই প্রকাশ করিবার প্রয়োজন হইবে না।

(৬) মানবাধিকার লংঘনের দায়ে আদালতে বিচারাধীন কোন মামলায় বা আইনগত কার্য ধারায় পৰ হইয়া প্রতিদ্বন্দ্বিতা করিবার অধিকার কমিশনের থাকিবে।

 

কমিশনের নিকট সাক্ষ্য প্রদানকারী ব্যক্তির সুযোগ-সুবিধা

২০। (১) কমিশনের নিকট সাক্ষ্য প্রদানকারী ব্যক্তি আদালতে সাক্ষ্য প্রদানকারী ব্যক্তির ন্যায় সকল সুযোগ-সুবিধার অধিকারী হইবেন।

(২) কমিশনের সম্মুখে সাক্ষ্য প্রদানকালে কোন ব্যক্তির প্রদত্ত বিবৃতি বা বক্তব্যের জন্য তাহার বিরুদ্ধে কোন ফৌজদারী বা দেওয়ানী মামলা রুজু করা যাইবে না বা উক্ত বিবৃতি বা বক্তব্য তাহার বিরুদ্ধে কোন ফৌজদারী বা দেওয়ানী কার্যধারায় ব্যবহার করা যাইবে না, তবে উক্তরূপ বিবৃতি বা বক্তব্যের মধ্যে কোন মিথ্যা সাক্ষ্য থাকিলে তজ্জন্য তিনি অভিযোগ হইতে অব্যাহতি পাইবেন না।

সমন প্রেরণ          

২১। (১) এই আইনের অধীন প্রত্যেক সমন চেয়ারম্যান বা সদস্য বা কমিশন কর্তৃক তদুদ্দেশ্যে ক্ষমতাপ্রাপ্ত কমিশনের কোন কর্মকর্তার স্বাক্ষরে জারী করা হইবে।

(২) প্রত্যেক সমন উহাতে উল্লিখিত ব্যক্তির নিকট এবং যেক্ষেত্রে তাহা সম্ভব না হয় সেক্ষেত্রে জানামতে তাহার সর্বশেষ বাসস্থানের ঠিকানায় সরবরাহ করিয়া বা রেজিস্ট্রিকৃত ডাকযোগে প্রেরণ করিয়া জারী করা হইবে।

(৩) যে ব্যক্তির নিকট সমন জারী করা হয় তিনি উহাতে উল্লিখিত সময় ও স্থানে কমিশনের সম্মুখে উপস্থিত থাকিবেন এবং কমিশন কর্তৃক তাহাকে জিজ্ঞাসিত সকল প্রশ্নের জবাব দিবেন এবং তাহার নিকট হইতে যাচিত এবং তাহার দখলে আছে এমন সকল দলিল সমনের মর্মার্থ অনুসারে উপস্থাপন করিবেন।

কমিশনের কার্যাবলীর বার্ষিক প্রতিবেদন     

২২। (১) প্রতি বৎসরের ৩০ মার্চ এর মধ্যে কমিশন উহার পূর্ববর্তী বৎসরের কার্যাবলী সম্পর্কে একটি প্রতিবেদন রাষ্ট্রপতির নিকট পেশ করিবে।

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন প্রতিবেদনের সহিত একটি স্মারকলিপি থাকিবে, যাহাতে, অন্যান্যের মধ্যে, কমিশনের পরামর্শ অনুসারে সরকার বা সংশ্লিষ্ট কর্তৃপক্ষ কর্তৃক কোন ক্ষেত্রে প্রয়োজনীয় কার্যক্রম বা ব্যবস্থা গ্রহণ করা না হইলে সেই ৰেত্রে প্রয়োজনীয় কার্যক্রম বা ব্যবস্থা গ্রহণ না করিবার কারণ, কমিশন যতদূর অবগত ততদূর, লিপিবদ্ধ থাকিবে।

চতুর্থ অধ্যায়

কমিশনের কর্মকর্তা, ইত্যাদি

কমিশনের কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারী

২৩। (১) কমিশনের একজন সচিব থাকিবে।

(২) এই আইনের অধীন কমিশন উহার কার্যাবলী সুষ্ঠুভাবে সম্পাদনের লক্ষ্য প্রয়োজনীয় সংখ্যক অন্যান্য কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারী নিয়োগ করিতে পারিবে।

(৩) সচিব এবং অন্যান্য কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারীর বেতন, ভাতা ও চাকুরীর অন্যান্য শর্তাদি বিধি দ্বারা নির্ধারিত হইবে :

তবে শর্ত থাকে যে, বিধি প্রণয়ন না হওয়া পর্যন্ত সচিব ও অন্যান্য কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারীর বেতন, ভাতা ও চাকুরীর অন্যান্য শর্তাদি সরকার কর্তৃক নির্ধারিত হইবে।

(৪) সরকার, কমিশনের অনুরোধক্রমে, প্রজাতন্ত্রের কর্মে নিযুক্ত কোন কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারীকে কমিশনে প্রেষণে নিয়োগ করিতে পারিবে।

মানবাধিকার কমিশন তহবিল       

২৪। (১) এই আইনের উদ্দেশ্য পূরণকল্পে মানবাধিকার কমিশন তহবিল নামে একটি তহবিল গঠিত হইবে।

(২) মানবাধিকার কমিশন তহবিল, অতঃপর এই ধারায় তহবিল বলিয়া উল্লিখিত, এর পরিচালনা ও প্রশাসন, এই ধারা এবং বিধির বিধান সাপেক্ষে, কমিশনের উপর ন্যস্ত থাকিবে৷

(৩) তহবিল হইতে কমিশনের সদস্য, কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারীদের বেতন, ভাতা ও চাকুরীর শর্তাবলী অনুসারে প্রদেয় অর্থ প্রদান করা হইবে এবং কমিশনের প্রয়োজনীয় অন্যান্য ব্যয় নির্বাহ করা হইবে৷

(৪) তহবিলে নিম্নবর্ণিত অর্থ জমা হইবে, যথা :-

(ক)    সরকার কর্তৃক প্রদত্ত বাৎসরিক অনুদান;

(খ)    স্থানীয় কর্তৃপক্ষ কর্তৃক প্রদত্ত অনুদান৷

কমিশনের আর্থিক স্বাধীনতা    

২৫। (১) সরকার প্রতি অর্থ বৎসরের কমিশনের ব্যয়ের জন্য উহার অনুকূলে নির্দিষ্টকৃত অর্থ বরাদ্দ করিবে; এবং অনুমোদিত ও নির্ধারিত খাতে উক্ত বরাদ্দকৃত অর্থ হইতে ব্যয় করার ক্ষেত্রে সরকারের পূর্বানুমোদন গ্রহণ করা কমিশনের জন্য আবশ্যক হইবে না।

(২) এই ধারার বিধান দ্বারা সংবিধানের ১২৮ অনুচ্ছেদে প্রদত্ত মহা-হিসাব নিরীক্ষকের অধিকার ক্ষুণ্ন করা হইয়াছে বলিয়া ব্যাখ্যা করা যাইবে না৷

 

হিসাব রক্ষণ ও নিরীক্ষা          

২৬। কমিশন যথাযথভাবে উহার হিসাব রক্ষণ করিবে এবং হিসাবের বার্ষিক বিবরণী প্রস্তুত করিবে৷

(২) বাংলাদেশের মহা-হিসাব নিরীক্ষক ও নিয়ন্ত্রক, অতঃপর মহা-হিসাব নিরীক্ষক নামে অভিহিত, প্রতি বৎসর কমিশনের হিসাব নিরীক্ষা করিবেন এবং নিরীক্ষা রিপোর্টের একটি করিয়া অনুলিপি সরকার ও কমিশনের নিকট পেশ করিবেন৷

(৩) উপ-ধারা (২) মোতাবেক হিসাব নিরীক্ষার উদ্দেশ্যে মহা-হিসাব নিরীক্ষক কিংবা তাহার নিকট হইতে এতদুদ্দেশ্যে ক্ষমতাপ্রাপ্ত কোন ব্যক্তি কমিশনের সকল রেকর্ড, দলিল দস্তাবেজ, নগদ বা ব্যাংকে গচ্ছিত অর্থ, জামানত, ভাণ্ডার এবং অন্যবিধ সম্পত্তি পরীক্ষা করিয়া দেখিতে পারিবেন এবং কমিশনের কোন সদস্য বা যে কোন কর্মকর্তা বা কর্মচারীকে জিজ্ঞাসাবাদ করিতে পারিবেন৷

জনসেবক      

২৭। চেয়ারম্যান, সদস্য, সচিব, অন্যান্য কর্মকর্তা ও কর্মচারী এবং এই আইনের অধীন কার্য সম্পাদনের জন্য কমিশন হইতে ক্ষমতাপ্রাপ্ত প্রত্যেক কর্মকর্তা দন্ডবিধির section 21 এর public servant (জনসেবক) অভিব্যক্তিটি যে অর্থে ব্যবহৃত হইয়াছে সেই অর্থে public servant (জনসেবক) বলিয়া গণ্য হইবেন৷

ক্ষমতা অর্পণ          

২৮। কমিশন উহার যেকোন ক্ষমতা,তৎকর্তৃক নির্ধারিত শর্তে, চেয়ারম্যান, সদস্য বা সচিবকে অর্পণ করিতে পারিবে৷

সরল বিশ্বাসে কৃত কাজকর্ম রক্ষণ          

২৯। এই আইন বা তদধীন প্রণীত বিধির অধীন সরল বিশ্বাসে কৃত কোন কাজের ফলে কোন ব্যক্তি ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত হইলে বা ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত হইবার সম্ভাবনা থাকিলে, তজ্জন্য সরকার, কমিশন, কোন সদস্য বা কমিশন বা সরকারের কোন কর্মকর্তা বা কর্মচারীর বা সরকার বা কমিশনের কর্তৃত্বাধীন কোন প্রকাশনা, রিপোর্ট বা কার্যধারার বিরুদ্ধে দেওয়ানী বা ফৌজদারী মামলা বা অন্য কোন আইনগত কার্যধারা দায়ের বা রুজু করা যাইবে না।

বিধি প্রণয়নের ক্ষমতা      

৩০। এই আইনের উদ্দেশ্য পূরণকল্পে কমিশন, রাষ্ট্রপতির পূর্বানুমোদনক্রমে এবং সরকারী গেজেটে প্রজ্ঞাপন দ্বারা, বিধি প্রণয়ন করিতে পারিবে।

ইংরেজীতে অনূদিত পাঠ প্রকাশ      

৩১। (১) এই আইন প্রবর্তনের পর সরকার, সরকারী গেজেটে প্রজ্ঞাপন দ্বারা, এই আইনের ইংরেজীতে অনূদিত একটি নির্ভরযোগ্য পাঠ প্রকাশ করিবে।

(২) বাংলা ও ইংরেজী পাঠের মধ্যে বিরোধের ক্ষেত্রে বাংলা পাঠ প্রাধান্য পাইবে।

হেফাজত সংক্রান্ত বিধান    

৩২। (১) জাতীয় মানবাধিকার কমিশন অধ্যাদেশ, ২০০৭ (২০০৭ সনের ৪০ নং অধ্যাদেশ), অতঃপর উক্ত অধ্যাদেশ বলিয়া উলিস্নখিত, এর অধীন কৃত কাজকর্ম বা গৃহীত ব্যবস্থা, এই আইনের বিধানাবলী সাপেৰে, এই আইনের অধীন কৃত বা গৃহীত হইয়াছে বলিয়া গণ্য হইবে।

(২) গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের সংবিধানের অনুচ্ছেদ ৯৩ এর দফা (২) এর বিধান অনুসারে উক্ত অধ্যাদেশের কার্যকরতা লোপ পাওয়া সত্ত্বেও অনুরূপ লোপ পাইবার পর উহার ধারাবাহিকতায় বা বিবেচিত ধারাবাহিকতায় কোন কাজকর্ম কৃত বা ব্যবস্থা গৃহীত হইয়া থাকিলে উহা এই আইনের বিধানাবলী সাপেক্ষে, এই আইনের অধীনেই কৃত বা গৃহীত হইয়াছে বলিয়াও গণ্য হইবে।

 

Source : Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

 

 

International Laws Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (UDHR)

International Laws Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (UDHR)

 

PREAMBLE

 

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

 

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

 

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

 

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

 

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

 

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

 

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

 

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

 

 

 

Article 1.

 

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

 

Article 2.

 

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

 

Article 3.

 

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

 

Article 4.

 

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

 

Article 5.

 

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

 

Article 6.

 

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

 

Article 7.

 

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

 

Article 8.

 

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

 

Article 9.

 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

 

Article 10.

 

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

 

Article 11.

 

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

 

Article 12.

 

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

 

Article 13.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

 

Article 14.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

 

Article 15.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

 

Article 16.

 

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

 

Article 17.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

 

Article 18.

 

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

 

Article 19.

 

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

 

Article 20.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

 

Article 21.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.

(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

 

Article 22.

 

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

 

Article 23.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

 

Article 24.

 

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

 

Article 25.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

 

Article 26.

 

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

 

Article 27.

 

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

 

Article 28.

 

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

 

Article 29.

 

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

 

Article 30.

 

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

 

 

 

The Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board Ordinance, 1976

 

THE CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS DEVELOPMENT BOARD ORDINANCE, 1976

(ORDINANCE NO. LXXVII OF 1976).

An Ordinance to provide for the establishment of a Development Board for the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the establishment of a Development Board for the Chittagong Hill Tracts and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto;

NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of the Proclamations of the 20th August, 1975, and 8th November, 1975 and in exercise of all powers enabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:-

CONTENTS

SECTIONS

1. Short title

2. Definitions

3. Establishment of the Board

4. Composition of the Board

5. Head office, etc.

6. Meeting of the Board

7. Consultative Committee

8. Functions of the Board

9. Execution of projects and schemes through other agencies

10.       Appointment of officers, etc.

11. Board Fund

12. Budget

13. Audit and accounts

14. Submission of reports, etc.

15. Power of entry

16. Compulsory acquisition of land for the Board

17. Delegation of powers

18. Power to issue directions

19. Indemnity

20.       Winding up

21. Power to make rules

22. Power to make regulations

23.       Dissolution of the existing Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board

An Ordinance to provide for the establishment of a Development Board for the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the establishment of a Development Board for the Chittagong Hill Tracts and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto;

NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of the Proclamations of the 20th August, 1975, and 8th November, 1975 and in exercise of all powers enabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:-

      Short title      

1. This Ordinance may be called the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board Ordinance, 1976.

             Definitions     

2. In this Ordinance, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-

(a)        “Board” means the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board established under section 3;

(b)        “Chairman” means the Chairman of the Board;

(c) “member” means a member of the Board;

(d) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Ordinance;

(e) “Vice-Chairman” means the Vice-Chairman of the Board.

    Establishment of the Board    

3. (1) As soon as may be after the commencement of this Ordinance, the Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, establish a Board to be called the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board for carrying out the purposes of this Ordinance.

(2) The Board shall be a body corporate, having perpetual succession and a common seal, with power, subject to the provisions of this Ordinance and the rules made thereunder, to acquire, hold and dispose of property, both movable and immovable, and shall by the said name sue and be sued.

             Composition of the Board       

4. 1[ (1) The Board shall consist of the following members, namely:-

(a)        a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman to be appointed by the Government;

(b) the Deputy Commissioners of the districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts 2[ , Bandarban and Khagrachari], ex-officio;

(c) 3[ four] full-time members to be appointed by the Government.]

(2) One of the full-time members, to be specified by the Government, shall act as the Secretary of the Board.

(3) Full-time members shall hold office on such terms and conditions as the Government may determine.

(4) The Chairman shall be the Chief executive of the Board.

(5) The Chairman and other members shall perform such functions as the Board may assign to them from time to time or as may be prescribed.

(6) No act or proceedings of the Board shall be invalid merely on the ground of the existence of a vacancy in, or any defect in the constitution of, the Board.

             Head office, etc       

5. (1) The head office of the Board shall be located at Rangamati.

(2) The Board may, with the prior approval of the Government, establish offices at any other place in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.

       Meeting of the Board  

6. (1) Save as hereinafter provided, the Board shall regulate the procedure for its meetings.

(2) Meetings of the Board shall be held on such date and at such time and place as may be determined by the Chairman:

Provided that at least one meeting of the Board shall be held in every two months.

(3) To constitute a quorum at a meeting of the Board, not less than three members shall be present.

(4) All questions at a meeting of the Board shall be decided by a majority of the members present and voting, and in the case of equality of votes, the person presiding shall have a second or casting vote.

(5) All meetings of the Board shall be presided over by the Chairman or, in his absence, by the Vice-Chairman.

          Consultative Committee       

7. (1) There shall be a Consultative Committee consisting of the following members, namely:-

(a)        the Chairman of the Board who shall also be its Chairman;

(b) the three Rajas or their nominees;

(c) one representative of the Headmen from each subdivision in the 4[ districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts 5[ , Bandarban and Khagrachari]], to be nominated by the Chairman;

(d) one Chairman of the Union Parishad from each subdivision 6[ of the districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts 7[ , Bandarban and Khagrachari]], to be nominated by the Chairman of the Board;

(e) such other members, official or non-official, as may be nominated by the Chairman with the approval of the Government.

(2) The nominated members of the Consultative Committee shall hold office for such period, and the members thereof shall be paid such travel costs for attending meetings, as may be determined by the Board.

(3) The Board shall regulate the procedure for the meetings of the Consultative Committee.

(4) The Consultative Committee shall advise the Board in the formulation and execution of its projects and schemes.

     Functions of the Board           

8. The functions of the Board shall be-

(a)        to prepare projects and schemes for the development of Chittagong Hill Tracts;

8[ (b) to approve of projects and schemes involving not more than twenty-five lakh Taka each for thethanaheadquarters, unions and villages;]

(c) to execute approved projects and schemes;

(d) to supervise execution of approved projects and schemes;

(e) to advance funds, on such terms and conditions as it may determine, for the execution of development schemes sponsored by various development agencies;

9[ * * *]

(g) to do such other acts and things as may be necessary or convenient to be done in connection with, or incidental or conducive to, the performance of the aforesaid functions.

Execution of projects and schemes through other agencies

9. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force or in section 8, the Board may require any local authority or Government agency within whose jurisdiction any area covered by any project or scheme approved under section 8 lies to execute the project or scheme, or any portion thereof, in consultation with the Board, and the expenditure incurred on the execution of any such project or scheme or portion thereof shall be borne as may be agreed to between the Board and the local authority or Government agency or, in the event of disagreement, as may be determined by the Government.

             Appointment of officers, etc            

10. The Board may appoint such officers and other employees as it considers necessary for the performance of its functions on such terms and conditions as it may deem fit:

Provided that no post shall be created by the Board without the prior approval of the Government.

        Board Fund    

11. (1) There shall be formed a Fund to be known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board Fund which shall vest in the Board and shall be utilised by the Board to meet charges in connection with its functions under this Ordinance, including the payment of salaries and other remuneration to the officers and other employees of the Board.

(2) The Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board Fund shall comprise-

(a)        a non-lapsable revolving fund, not exceeding Taka two crore, to be granted by the Government;

(b)        loans raised by the Board with the sanction of the Government;

(c) receipts from any other source.

             Budget          

12. The Board shall, by such date in each year as may be prescribed, submit to the Government for approval a budget in the prescribed form for each financial year showing the estimated receipts and expenditure and the sums which are likely to be required from the Government during that financial year.

             Audit and accounts         

13. (1) The Board shall maintain its accounts in such manner and form as may be prescribed.

(2) The accounts of the Board shall be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor-General ofBangladesh(hereinafter in this section referred to as the Auditor-General) in such manner as he deems fit.

(3) For the purpose of an audit under sub-section (2), the Auditor-General or any person authorised by him in this behalf shall have access to all records, books, documents, cash, securities, stores and other property of the Board and may examine the Chairman or any member, officer or employee of the Board.

(4) The Auditor-General shall, as soon as possible after completion of the audit, send to the Board his audit report and the Board shall forward it, with its comments thereon, to the Government.

(5) The Board shall take steps forthwith to remedy any defects or irregularities pointed out in the audit report.

             Submission of reports, etc     

14. (1) The Board shall submit to the Government, as soon as possible after the end of every financial year, a report on the conduct of its affairs for that year.

(2) The Board shall submit to the Government at such time and at such interval as the Government may specify-

(a)        such returns, accounts, statements, estimates and statistics as may be required by the Government;

(b) information and comments asked for by the Government on any specific subject;

(c) copies of documents required by the Government for examination or any other purpose.

             Power of entry    

15. The Chairman or any member, or any other person authorised by the Chairman in this behalf, may, with or without assistants or workmen, enter into or upon any land in order

(a)        to make any inspection, survey, experiment, valuation or inquiry;

(b) to take level of such land;

(c) to dig or bore into the sub-soil;

(d) to set out boundaries and intended lines of work;     (e) to mark such levels, boundaries and lines by placing marks and cutting trenches; or

(f) to do any other thing;

whenever it is necessary to do so for any of the purposes of this Ordinance:

Provided that no such entry shall be made without giving the occupier of the land at least twenty-four hours’ notice of the intention to make such entry.

             Compulsory acquisition of land for the Board      

16. Any land required by the Board for carrying out its functions under this Ordinance shall be deemed to be needed for a public purpose and such land may be requisitioned or acquired for the Board by the Government or the Deputy Commissioner, as the case may be, in accordance with any law for the time being in force.

     Delegation of powers      

17. The Board may, by general or special order, delegate to the Chairman or any member or officer any of its functions subject to such conditions as it may think fit to impose.

        Power to issue directions      

18. The Government may, from time to time, issue directions to the Board to take such measures as it considers necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Ordinance; and the Board shall comply with all such directions.

          Indemnity     

19. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Board, the Chairman or any member, officer or employee of the Board for anything done or intended to be done in good faith under this Ordinance.

   Winding up          

20. No provision of law relating to the winding up of bodies corporate shall apply to the Board, and the Board shall not be wound up except by order of the Government and in such manner as the Government may direct.

        Power to make rules 

21. The Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Ordinance.

       Power to make regulations     

22. The Board may, with the approval of the Government, make regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Ordinance and the rules made thereunder, to provide for all matters not required to be provided for by rules and for which provision is necessary or expedient for carrying out the purposes of this Ordinance.

 Dissolution of the existing Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board    

23. (1) Upon the establishment of the Board, the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board constituted by the Cabinet Division notification No. 21/2/76-Rules, dated the 14th January, 1976, hereinafter referred to as the existing Board, shall stand dissolved and the said notification shall stand rescinded.

(2) Upon the dissolution of the existing Board,-

(a)        all assets, rights, powers, authorities and privileges, and all property, movable or immovable, cash and bank balances, funds, investments and all other interests and rights in, or arising out of, such property of the existing Board subsisting immediately before its dissolution shall stand transferred to and vest in the Board;

(b) all debts, obligations and liabilities incurred, all contracts entered into and all matters and things engaged to be done by, with or for the existing Board before its dissolution shall be deemed to have been incurred, entered into or engaged to be done by, with or for the Board;

(c) all budget estimates, schemes or projects made by the existing Board shall be deemed to have been made by the Board under the provisions of this Ordinance and shall continue in force until they are altered, amended or superseded under the said provisions;

(d) all officers and other employees of the existing Board shall stand transferred to and become officers and employees of the Board and shall hold office or service in the Board on the same terms and conditions as were enjoyed by them immediately before such dissolution and shall continue to do so until the terms and conditions are duly altered under this Ordinance;

(e) all suits, prosecutions and other legal proceedings instituted by or against the existing Board before its dissolution shall be deemed to be suits, prosecutions and proceedings by or against the Board and shall be proceeded or otherwise dealt with accordingly.

1 Sub-section (1) was substituted by section 3 of the Development Boards Laws Amendment Ordinance, 1982 (Ordinance No. XLV of 1982)

2 The comma and words “, Bandarban and Khagrachari” were substituted for the words “and Bandarban” by section 2 of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board (Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (Ordinance No. IX of 1984)

3 The word “four” was substituted for the word “three” by section 2 of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board (Amendment) Ordinance, 1983 (Ordinance No. XLIV of 1983)

4 The words “districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts and Bandarban” were substituted for the words “Chittagong Hill Tracts ” by section 3 of the Development Boards Laws Amendment Ordinance, 1982 (Ordinance No. XLV of 1982)

5 The comma and words “, Bandarban and Khagrachari” were substituted for the words “and Bandarban” by section 3 of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board (Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (Ordinance No. IX of 1984)

6 The words “of the districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts and Bandarban” were inserted by section 3 of the Development Boards Laws Amendment Ordinance, 1982 (Ordinance No. XLV of 1982)

7 The comma and words “, Bandarban and Khagrachari” were substituted for the words “and Bandarban” by section 3 of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board (Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (Ordinance No. IX of 1984)

8 Clause (b) was substituted by section 3 of the Development Boards Laws Amendment Ordinance, 1982 (Ordinance No. XLV of 1982)

9 Clause (f) was omitted by section 3 of the Development Boards Laws Amendment Ordinance, 1982 (Ordinance No. XLV of 1982)

Source : Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

The Districts (Extension to The Chittagong Hill Tracts) Ordinance, 1984

 

 

THE DISTRICTS (EXTENSION TO THE CHITTAGONG HILL-TRACTS) ORDINANCE, 1984

(ORDINANCE NO. LXXI OF 1984).

[5th December, 1984]

 

An Ordinance to extend the Districts Act, 1836, to the Chittagong Hill-tracts.

WHEREAS it is expedient to extend the Districts Act, 1836 (XXI of 1836), to the Chittagong Hill-tracts;

NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of the Proclamation of the 24th March, 1982, and in exercise of all powers, enabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:-

 

CONTENTS

SECTIONS

1.Short title and commencement

2.Definition

3.Application of Act XXI of 1836 to the Chittagong Hill-tracts

4.Validation

An Ordinance to extend the Districts Act, 1836, to the Chittagong Hill-tracts

WHEREAS it is expedient to extend the Districts Act, 1836 (XXI of 1836), to the Chittagong Hill-tracts;

NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of the Proclamation of the 24th March, 1982, and in exercise of all powers, enabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:-

Short title and commencement

1. (1) This Ordinance may be called the Districts (Extension to the Chittagong Hill-tracts) Ordinance, 1984

(2) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 18th April, 1981.

Definition

2. In this Ordinance, the expression “Chittagong Hill-tracts” means the area known by that name as existing on the first day of January, 1936.

Application of Act XXI of 1836 to the Chittagong Hill-tracts

3. The Districts Act, 1836 (XXI of 1836), shall apply to the Chittagong Hill-tracts.

 

Validation

4. The new districts of Bandarban and Khagrachari created in the Chittagong Hill-tracts under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act V of 1898), before the commencement of this Ordinance shall be deemed to have been created under the Districts Act, 1836 (XXI of 1836).

  

Source : Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

 

 

ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড আইন, ১৯৮৯

ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড আইন, ১৯৮৯

 

 ( ১৯৮৯ সনের ২৪ নং আইন )[৩১ মে, ১৯৮৯]

ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠনের জন্য বিধান করার উদ্দেশ্যে প্রণীত আইন৷

যেহেতু ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠনের জন্য বিধান করা সমীচীন ও প্রয়োজনীয়;

সেহেতু এতদ্‌দ্বারা নিম্নরূপ আইন করা হইল :-

সূচী

ধারাসমূহ

১। সংক্ষিপ্ত শিরোনামা ও প্রবর্তন

২। সংজ্ঞা

৩। আইনের প্রাধান্য

৪। ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠন

৫। বোর্ডের এখতিয়ার

৬। পুনর্বিবেচনা

৭। বিধি প্রণয়নের ক্ষমতা

৮। রহিতকরণ ও হেফাজত

ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠনের জন্য বিধান করার উদ্দেশ্যে প্রণীত আইন৷

 

 

যেহেতু ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠনের জন্য বিধান করা সমীচীন ও প্রয়োজনীয়;

সেহেতু এতদ্‌দ্বারা নিম্নরূপ আইন করা হইল :-

সংক্ষিপ্ত শিরোনামা ও প্রবর্তন

১৷ (১) এই আইন ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড আইন, ১৯৮৯ নামে অভিহিত হইবে৷

(২) ইহা ২রা চৈত্র, ১৩৯৫ মোতাবেক ১৬ই মার্চ, ১৯৮৯ তারিখে বলবত্ হইয়াছে বলিয়া গণ্য হইবে৷

সংজ্ঞা

২৷ এই আইনে “বোর্ড” বলিতে ভূমি আপীল বোর্ডকে বুঝাইবে৷

আইনের প্রাধান্য

৩৷ আপাততঃ বলবত্ অন্য কোন আইনে বিপরীত যাহা কিছুই থাকুক না কেন, এই আইন ও তদধীন প্রণীত বিধির বিধানাবলী কার্যকর থাকিবে৷

ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড গঠন

৪৷ (১) এই আইন বলবত্ হইবার পর সরকার, যথাশীঘ্র সম্ভব, ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড নামে একটি বোর্ড গঠন করিবে৷

(২) একজন চেয়ারম্যান এবং অনধিক দুইজন সদস্য সমন্বয়ে বোর্ড গঠিত হইবে৷

(৩) বোর্ডের চেয়ারম্যান ও সদস্যগণ সরকার কর্তৃক নিযুক্ত হইবেন এবং তাঁহাদের চাকুরীর শর্তাবলী সরকার কর্তৃক স্থিরীকৃত হইবে৷

বোর্ডের এখতিয়ার

৫৷ বোর্ড উহার উপর সরকার কর্তৃক অথবা কোন আইনের দ্বারা কিংবা আইনের অধীন অর্পিত ক্ষমতা প্রয়োগ ও দায়িত্ব পালন করিবে৷

পুনর্বিবেচনা

১[ ৬৷ (১) বোর্ডের কোন আদেশের দ্বারা কোন ব্যক্তি সংক্ষুব্ধ হইলে তিনি আদেশটি ষাট দিনের মধ্যে উহা পুনর্বিবেচনার জন্য বোর্ডের নিকট বিধি দ্বারা নির্ধারিত পদ্ধতিতে আবেদন করিতে পারিবেন৷

(২) বোর্ডের বিবেচনায় সংগত কোন মনে হইলে আবেদনকারীর প্রার্থনার পরিপ্রেক্ষিতে বোর্ড উহার সিদ্ধান্তের বাস্তবায়ন উপ-ধারা (১) এর অধীন পেশকৃত আবেদনটি নিষ্পত্তি না হওয়া পর্যন্ত স্থগিত রাখিতে পারিবে৷]

বিধি প্রণয়নের ক্ষমতা

৭৷ এই আইনের উদ্দেশ্য পূরণকল্পে সরকার, সরকারী গেজেটে প্রজ্ঞাপন দ্বারা, বিধি প্রণয়ন করিতে পারিবে৷

রহিতকরণ ও হেফাজত

৮৷ (১) Board of Land Administration Act, 1980 (XIII of 1981) এতদ্‌দ্বারা রহিত করা হইল৷

(২) উপ-ধারা (১) এ উল্লিখিত রহিতকরণের তারিখে রহিত Act এর অধীন গঠিত ভূমি প্রশাসন বোর্ডের নিকট কোন বিষয় অনিষ্পন্ন থাকিলে উহা, অন্য কোন আইনে যাহা কিছুই থাকুক না কেন, সরকারের নিকট হস্তান্তরিত হইবে এবং সরকার হয় নিজেই উহা নিষ্পত্তি করিবে নতুবা নিষ্পত্তির জন্য উহা ভূমি সংস্কার বোর্ড বা ভূমি আপীল বোর্ডের নিকট প্রেরণ করিবে এবং যে বোর্ডের নিকট বিষয়টি প্রেরিত হইবে সেই বোর্ডই উহা নিষ্পত্তি করিবে৷

(৩) ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড অধ্যাদেশ, ১৯৮৯ (অধ্যাদেশ নং ২, ১৯৮৯) এতদ্‌দ্বারা রহিত করা হইল৷

(৪) উপ-ধারা (৩) এর অধীন রহিতকরণ সত্ত্বেও, রহিত অধ্যাদেশের অধীন কৃত কাজকর্ম বা গৃহীত ব্যবস্থা এই আইনের অধীন কৃত বা গৃহীত হইয়াছে বলিয়া গণ্য হইবে৷

 

১ ধারা ৬ ভূমি আপীল বোর্ড (সংশোধন) আইন, ১৯৯০ (১৯৯০ সনের ৩০ নং আইন) এর ২ ধারা কর্তৃক প্রতিস্থাপিত

 

Source : Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs

 

 

Summary of The ILO Conventions : 107

Summary of The ILO Conventions : 107

Purpose of this Convention:

Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the protection and integration of indigenous and other tribal and semi-tribal populations in independent countries, which is the sixth item on the agenda of the session, and Considering that the Declaration of Philadelphia affirms that all human beings have the right to pursue both their material well-being and their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, of economic security and equal opportunity.

Gist of this Convention:

Governments shall have the primary responsibility for developing co-ordinated and systematic action for the protection of the populations concerned and their progressive integration into the life of their respective countries.Enabling the said populations to benefit on an equal footing from the rights and opportunities which national laws or regulations grant to the other elements of the population. Promoting the social, economic and cultural development of these populations and raising their standard of living. Creating possibilities of national integration to the exclusion of measures tending towards the artificial assimilation of these populations.

Total Articles of this Convention: 37 Articles.

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